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Cursul 9 – 18 Aprilie [email protected] - UAIC


Academic year: 2023

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Cursul 9 – 18 Aprilie [email protected]


Din Cursurile trecute…

Design Patterns

Creational Patterns

Structural Patterns

Behavioral Patterns

Alte tipuri de Design Patterns

Quality Assurance

Software Testing

Testing Methodologies

Testing process

Manual Testing vs Automatic Testing


GOF = ?

Creational Patterns

Structural Patterns

Behavioral Patterns


Abstract Factory


Factory Method

Prototype = ?








Flyweight = ?



Help, multi level filter


Customer, waiter, cook


Musical notes


Remote control


Control tower



Undo and restore operations in most software

Database transactions


Network connection


Excel graphs, News Agency


Standard calculator, Robot


Games, Travel Agency


Car elements visitor


Concurrency Patterns - deal with multi-threaded programming paradigm

Single Threaded Execution – Prevent concurrent calls to the method from resulting in concurrent

executions of the method

Scheduler - Control the order in which threads are scheduled to execute single threaded code using an object that explicitly sequences waiting threads

Producer-Consumer - Coordinate the asynchronous production and consumption of information or



Testing Patterns 1

Black Box Testing - Ensure that software satisfies requirements

White Box Testing - Design a suite of test cases to exhaustively test software by testing it in all

meaningful situations

Unit Testing - Test individual classes

Integration Testing - Test individually developed classes together for the first time

System Testing - Test a program as a whole entity


Testing Patterns 2

Regression Testing - Keep track of the outcomes of testing software with a suite of tests over time

Acceptance Testing – Is done to ensure that delivered software meets the needs of the customer or

organization that the software was developed for

Clean Room Testing - People designing software should not discuss specifications or their

implementation with people designing tests for the software


Distributed Architecture Patterns

Mobile Agent - An object needs to access very large volume of remote data => move the object to the data

Demilitarized Zone - You don’t want hackers to be able to gain access to servers

Object Replication - You need to improve the throughput or availability of a distributed



Transaction patterns -

Ensure that a

transaction will never have any unexpected or inconsistent outcome. Design and implement

transactions correctly and with a minimum of effort

Distributed computing patterns

Temporal patterns -

distributed applications to function correctly, the clocks on the computers

they run on must be synchronized. You may need to access pervious or future states of an object.

The values of an object’s attributes may change over time

Database patterns


Refers to planned and systematic production

processes that provide confidence in a product's suitability for its intended purpose.

A set of activities intended to ensure that products satisfy customer requirements

QA cannot absolutely guarantee the production of quality products, unfortunately, but makes this more likely

Two key principles characterize QA:

"fit for purpose" - the product should be suitable for the intended purpose, and

"right first time" - mistakes should be eliminated


Price Time



“The process of exercising or evaluating a system by manual or automated

means to verify that it satisfies specified requirements or to identify differences

between expected and actual results.”

(IEEE Standard Glossary, 1983)


(SQA) consists of a means of monitoring the software engineering processes and methods used to ensure quality

May include ensuring conformance to one or more standards, such as ISO 9000 or CMMI

SQA encompasses the entire software

development process, which includes processes such as

software design, coding, source code control, code reviews, change management, configuration management, and release



ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems

Some of the requirements in ISO 9001 (from ISO 9000 family) include

a set of procedures;

monitoring processes;

keeping adequate records;

checking output for defects;

regularly reviewing individual processes;

facilitating continual improvement


An empirical investigation conducted to provide information about the

quality of the product or service under test, with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate


Allow the business to

appreciate and understand

the risks at implementation of the software

Test techniques include the process of

executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs

The process of validating and verifying that a software program/application/product meets the business and technical requirements that guided its design and development


Can be implemented at any time in the development process

However the most test effort is employed after the requirements have been defined and coding process has been completed

In XP…


Testarea Software NU este o fază

Este un proces care trebuie integrat în toate fazele

construcţiei produsului software

Există documente de testare asociate la fiecare fază a



De a localiza şi preveni bugs cât mai curând posibil

De a efectua toate Testele

corespunzător Cerinţelor, într-un mod cât mai eficient şi mai economic

De a aduce produsul software la un

nivel de calitate cât mai ridicat (pentru client)

Testarea nu e doar pentru Software!

Este pentru toate componentele ce vor

fi livrate clientului


Comunicarea deficitară sau Blocajele de comunicare

Înţelegerea deficitară

Presiunea Timpului

Nivelul Programatorului este Scăzut


Comunicare Deficitară




Cerinţe definite Incomplet

Modelare Ambiguă sau Insuficientă

Erori de Programare





0 20 40 60 80 100

Cerinţe Modelare Impl. Test. Int. Test.sist. Client


Găsirea târzie a bugs un cost

cât mai mare pentru a le fixa




Profesionalismul în testare constă în

abilitatea de a selecta numărul minim

de cazuri de testare eficientă ce va fi

capabil să verifice numărul maxim de

funcţii ale sistemului



Când numărul de erori găsite într-un ciclu de testare este mai mic decât un număr stabilit

Când nu mai sunt găsite defecte critice şi majore

Când timpul a expirat


Echipa de Test

Mediul de Testare


de Test Testware

Designs Acquires Configures Utilizes Support

Provides a Platform

for the operation of

Determine the usage of

Designs Acquires Configures

Utilizes Support

Create Articulates

Trains Applies Internalize


Diferenţa dintre testare SW şi debug SW

Nivele de Test

Metode de Testare

Conţinutul Testării

Testare Manuală vs Testare Automată



•Verificarea respectării cerinţelor

•De regulă e făcută de o entitate externă şi neutră

•Este un proces

planificat şi controlat


•Verificarea validităţii secţiunilor

•E făcută de programator

•E un proces aleator


Unitate sau Debug






Testarea unei funcţii, a unui program, a unui ecran, a unei funcţionalităţi

Se face de către programatori


Rezultatele trebuie documentate

Se folosesc simulatoare pentru Input şi Output


Testarea funcţionării unor module în acelaşi timp

Testarea coexistenţei

Se execută de către programatori sau de către testeri analişti

Testare pre-planificată

Rezultatele se documentează


System testing of software or hardware is

testing conducted on a complete, integrated

system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.

System testing falls within the scope of black box testing

System testing is a more limiting type of testing;

it seeks to detect defects both within the "inter- assemblages" and also within the system as a whole.


White Box

Black Box

Gray Box

Graphical user Interface Testing

Acceptance Testing

Regression Testing




The tester has access to the internal data structures and algorithms

Types of white box testing

api testing - Testing of the application using Public and Private APIs

code coverage - creating tests to satisfy some criteria of code coverage

fault injection methods

mutation testing methods

static testing - White box testing includes all static testing


Input Output


"like a walk in a dark labyrinth without a flashlight,"


Specification-based testing

Black box testing methods include: equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, all-pairs testing, fuzz testing, model-based testing,

traceability matrix, exploratory testing and specification-based testing.


This involves having access to internal data structures and algorithms for purposes of

designing the test cases, but testing at the user, or black-box level

Manipulating input data and formatting output do not qualify as "grey-box," because the input and output are clearly outside of the "black-

box" that we are calling "the software under test."


In computer science, GUI software testing is the process of testing a product that uses a

graphical user interface, to ensure it meets its written specifications.

The variety of errors found in GUI applications:

Data validation, Incorrect field defaults, Mandatory fields, not mandatory, Wrong fields retrieved by queries, Incorrect search criteria

Field order, Multiple database rows returned, single row expected

Currency of data on screens, Correct window modality?

Control state alignment with state of data in window?


A black-box testing performed on a system prior to its delivery

In software development, acceptance testing by the system provider is often distinguished from acceptance testing by the customer (the user or client) prior to accepting transfer of ownership.

In such environments, acceptance testing

performed by the customer is known as user acceptance testing (UAT).

This is also known as end-user testing, site (acceptance) testing, or field (acceptance) testing.


Regression testing is any type of software testing which seeks to uncover software regressions.

Such regressions occur whenever software functionality that was previously working correctly, stops working as intended.

Typically regressions occur as an unintended consequence of program changes.

Common methods of regression testing include re-running previously run tests and checking

whether previously fixed faults have re-emerged


Definirea structurii testării

Se împarte sistemul într-o structură ierarhică

Se descriu resursele necesare pentru testare

Se planifică testarea

Împărţirea în paşi se face ţinând cont de cerinţe

Se descrie ce va fi testat pentru componente şi funcţii

Descrie CUM să testăm sistemul



set, get



Se găsesc rapid problemele

Se câştigă timp când e nevoie să repetăm


Procesul de scriere a codului e mult mai flexibil

Reduce volumul de testare manuală

Dezvoltarea software devine previzibilă şi repetabilă

Rezolvă problemele de interfaţă: scrierea

corectă a textelor, mesajelor, aranjarea corectă în pagină, în ordinea care trebuie, sunt vizibile, etc.

Realizarea Scenariilor de

test poate fi o treabă de

durată şi anevoioasă şi

implică o cunoaştere

temeinică a întregului



Convenţiile de programare sunt importante deoarece:

80% din timpul alocat unei componente software este întreţinere

Foarte rar un produs software este întreţinut pe toată durata folosirii lui de către aceeaşi


Convenţiile de cod îmbunătăţesc lizibilitatea produsului, şi permite inginerilor software să înţeleagă rapid un program nou


Folosirea fără rezerve a Comentariilor: ce fac procedurile, ce reprezintă variabilele,

explicarea paşilor algoritmului, etc.

Folosirea numelor sugestive pentru variabile si proceduri

Scrierea modulara a proiectului

Folosirea perechilor de tip set/get, start/stop, adauga/sterge, salvare/incarcare



◦ http://www.chris-


◦ http://geosoft.no/development/cppstyle.



◦ http://java.sun.com/docs/codeconv/

◦ http://geosoft.no/development/javastyle



Behavioral Patterns: http://www.oodesign.com/behavioral- patterns/

Pattern Synopses2,3:

http://www.mindspring.com/~mgrand/pattern_synopses2.htm http://www.mindspring.com/~mgrand/pattern_synopses3.htm

Software Quality Assurance:


Software Testing:


GUI Software Testing:


Regression Testing:


Junit Test Example:

http://www.cs.unc.edu/~weiss/COMP401/s08-27- JUnitTestExample.doc



Figure 2 depicts the overview of our investigation: learn- ing software testing concepts (testing using Agile or Session Based Test Management methodologies, Exploratory

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