Features of Distance Learning Organization
S.K.Nazarova, G. A.Jalilova,N.S.Mukhamedova, N.F.Rasulova
Associate Professor of the Department of Public Health, Healthcare Management of the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute
Abstract: The article highlights the issues of the historical development of distance education, defines the concepts of distance education, forms and methods in modern tractology, gives a classification of distance learning technologies,the main components of distance learning during a pandemic are indicated, an analysis of the existing experience is carried out, the advantages and negative aspects of the organization of distance education are determined, the behavior of students is studied, motivations, relationships, moral and ethical attitudes and personal qualities of a teacher of a medical educational institution are determined in accordance with the professional and ethical code, the assessment of the importance of distance education is given.
Key words: distance education, motivation, student behavior, moral and ethical attitudes, professional ethics, aspects and technologies of distance learning.
Introduction. Over the past decades, distance education has become a global phenomenon of educational and information culture, and has become especially relevant in 2020 in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which significantly influenced the nature of education around the world. Distance learning is a form of education in which a teacher and a student interact at a distance using information technology, mobile gadgets, television, radio or postal service. During distance learning, the student mainly studies independently, studying according to a given program.
In our country, distance education is guaranteed by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan No.
ЗРУ-637, article 16, dated September 23, 2020 "On education", which states that ... distance education is aimed at obtaining students the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities in accordance with the educational plans and educational programs at a distance using information and communication technologies and the worldwide information network Internet (1). Online learning is the acquisition of knowledge and skills using a computer or other gadget connected to the Internet in the "here and now"
(synchronous) or "when it is convenient for the student" (asynchronous) mode. This format of education is also called e-learning or "e-learning", and it is considered a logical continuation of distance learning, and the word "online" only indicates the way of obtaining knowledge and communication between the teacher and the student. Distance learning takes place "at a distance", and an online lesson can take place in the classroom, when the whole group with the teacher are together (6,10).
Purpose of the study: to identify the strengths and weaknesses of distance learning in the historical aspect and at the present stage in order to increase the competence of teachers in communicating with students and in providing educational material.
Research methods To solve the set tasks, a set of methods for studying the history of distance learning and its development at the present stage was used, including: theoretical analysis of psychological, pedagogical, medical literature; analysis of documents, study of available research in this
area. Statistical data processing was carried out using the Microsoft Word-2003 program on a personal computer such as IBM PC.
Research results. The research has studied the history of the development of distance learning, compared with the current state of forms and methods of distance learning, identified the strengths and weaknesses of this form of education.It should be noted that distance learning affects not only professional development, but also the formation of an individual as a person, contributes to the development of operational skills, skills to work with large information and the ability to process the presented material. Some scholars argue that the idea of distance learning is not new. St. Paul has sent messages to individual churches that provide examples of some aspects of distance education. The history of the emergence of distance education begins in the 1700s. In 1728, Caleb Phillips applied to a Boston newspaper to recruit students to study shorthand anywhere in the country through an exchange of letters.
This was the beginning of distance education. Isaac Pitman made a huge contribution to the development of distance education. In 1840, he sent letters by mail to everyone with his lessons. C. Tusen and G.
Lanchenstein in 1856 founded the Institute of Correspondence Education in Berlin. The training was also carried out by mailing letters with educational material, tests, etc. The first opportunities for higher education using distance learning appeared in 1836 with the founding of the University of London.
Students enrolled in approved colleges and other educational institutions located elsewhere were admitted to the University exams. Since 1858, those wishing to study from all over the world began to be admitted to exams. In 1873, the first correspondence schools were established in the United States. It is believed that Anna Eliot Ticknor pioneered the Ticknor society for women, with female students learning from distance by mail. A year later, in 1874, Isaac Pitman proposed to create his own curriculum by mail.
Shortly thereafter, in 1892, the University of Chicago created the first distance learning program, making it the first distance learning institution in the United States. Since 1899 in Canada, Queen's University began to teach students at a distance. With the advent of television in the 1950s, television courses developed, and by 1953 television broadcasting of courses had become very common among universities in the United States and Europe. The University of Wisconsis in 1965 introduced a large-scale educational program for doctors, using a telephone teaching format. In 1968 it was possible to obtain an accredited distance education diploma at the University of Lincoln, Nebraska. In the 1960s, distance education gained international recognition and began to actively develop with the support of UNESCO. In 1963, the Prime Minister of England, G. Wilson, announced the creation of an "ether university", which was supposed to unite all educational institutions using distance education. In 1969, the Open University was established in England. Today this university is very popular, over 200,000 students from different countries study in it in various fields. With the invention of the Internet, humanity has taken a step further in educational technology. Throughout the 80s, real-time learning technologies have improved and gained popularity among companies and educational institutions. In 1981, the US Institute of Strategy and Management began developing an online course program. The University of Phoenix was launched in 1989 with real-time training.Throughout the 1990s, educational institutions have used various distance education technologies, both in synchronous and asynchronous modes. In 1992, Michigan State University developed a computer-assisted approach to online learning. In 1994, the university offered a virtual school of instruction (VSS) to some of its psychology students. In addition, in 1994, a distance education company in New Hampshire developed the CALCampus program, which provides the ability to teach, administer, and send materials exclusively over the Internet. In 1997, Blackboard developed a standard platform for managing and delivering courses. The company is currently the global leader in
remote sensing technology, with products used by more than 10,000 organizations around the world. In the 2000s, distance learning became dominant. The Internet system has been improving, becoming more accessible, and distance education technologies have also developed. Currently, distance learning is gaining more and more popularity, as there is an increase in the number of people who want to get education, but do not have the opportunity to do it in the form of full-time education. In 2011, Stanford University professors Sebastian Tran and Peter Norvig launched an introductory online course on the basics of artificial intelligence over the Internet. In turn, this opening of the courses attracted more than 160,000 students from 190 countries, but a significant part of the students eventually retired, of which 23,000 completed the course. Sebastian Tran's success has inspired other universities (Princeton, Pennsylvania, University of Michigan) to open their online courses. Next, scientists from Stanford created Udacity, a website that is a powerful provider of online courses. The next stage in the development of distance education is the opening of multi-functional massive online courses (MOOCs) - these are platforms that offer their students educational programs from different universities.
Classification of distance learning technologies: A technology case is a technology based on the acquisition of sets (cases) of educational and methodological materials and their delivery to students for independent study; TV technologies are technologies based on the use of terrestrial, cable and space training systems; Networked learning technologies are technologies based on the use of local and global networks and the Internet.
The main components of distance learning: Technical aspect (computers, gadgets, etc.). The educational and methodological aspect is a special pedagogical system that presupposes the organization of the educational process on the basis of information technologies and telecommunications (multimedia courses in the discipline), the Internet. Personnel aspect: the educational part, the methodologist, teachers who create courses, conduct on-line training, control the educational process, or a consultant-mentor who is part of the teaching staff of the distance learning system, who provides methodological and organizational assistance to students within the framework of distance learning, students studying in distance learning mode study the course, undergo testing, master the curriculum. The legal aspect is the regulatory documents that determine the main directions of the use of remote sensing technologies. The administrative aspect is a group of managers and individuals implementing distance learning based on regulatory documents and best practices.
The positive aspects of distance learning are: 1. Accessibility in obtaining knowledge. 2. Free work schedule. 3. The choice of an individual trajectory and pace of learning. 4. Opportunity to communicate with other students of different levels of training. 5. Possibility of training (basic and additional) in comfortable conditions and at an individual pace. 6. Mobility. 7. Manufacturability. 8.
Increase creativity. 9. Self-reliance. 9. Responsibility.
The distance learning model should reflect the educational process of full-time education. These are specialized subjects, courses for deepening knowledge, eliminating gaps, independent, project, research activities of students, work on individual programs, additional materials, practical work, joint activities of students, consultations, etc.
Interactive elements of distance learning. Basic learning environment Moodle.
1. Organization of communication between distance learning students (forum, chat, messaging).
2. Organization of knowledge testing (tasks, workbook, survey, webinar, lesson, tests).
In the current conditions caused by the global spread of coronavirus infection, the whole country was forced to urgently switch to distance learning. Until recently, teachers only assumed the
implementation of a possible transition to distance learning, affecting the entire educational space of the university, tried to identify the complexities of the methodological, educational, pedagogical and psychological nature, to assess possible failures of interaction "teacher-student" within the learning process in this format. At present, the teachers involved in the shortest possible time in the distance learning format on their own experience can assess the lack of preparedness in full for this form of education. Therefore, the urgent task of this period is to adapt the educational process to modern conditions in such a way that the effectiveness of training as a whole is not lost. It is in the given conditions that something new is being created, which will allow in the future to use the existing experience of conducting practical exercises using various platforms (Teams, Discord, Zoom, etc.) in the format of remote work as a possible additional means of educational interaction "teacher - student" ... The urgency of introducing a distance learning format revealed, first of all, the unpreparedness of university teachers to conduct classes in this format, despite the fact that the university implements some of the programs in the form of distance learning. However, it should be noted that interaction with students is carried out with the help of employees (a special unit of the university, in the staff of which there are system administrators, programmers, etc.), who create working conditions using electronic means of communication. Students are provided with all educational and methodological materials in electronic format, the bulk of which is on the portal in the educational and methodological base and is annually updated or updated. In addition, current control and intermediate certification are carried out through the use of a bank of test tasks for a specific discipline in an automated training system. The requirement of the present moment is the work of the teacher from home (independent loading of the platform, connection to the meeting mode, etc.). This caused particular difficulty among teachers over the age of 60, who partly mastered the possibilities offered by electronic means of communication, but only for personal use and interaction with colleagues and employees of the educational institution for the implementation of the educational process as a whole. Even to download a specific platform, they need detailed instructions and advice from the department staff, not to mention using the opportunities that each platform provides. Consequently, one of the significant problems was the insufficient training of teachers for installing platforms of Internet resources, studying their capabilities and, as a result, a violation of sustainable interaction with students online. Hence, one of the gaps in the system was the unpreparedness of teachers to quickly respond to changing conditions in society and, accordingly, in the educational environment.Teachers should be able not only to convey the program content of the discipline to students, but also be able to master a computer and new Internet technologies at a fairly good level.
Undoubtedly, the younger generation of teachers is successfully guided in choosing a platform that matches their vision of implementing the work program and effective interaction with students. As it turned out, many actively used Zoom before the aforementioned situation, but this platform was used by them only as an additional means of communication, thereby unloading the teacher's corporate mail.
Nevertheless, despite the fact that about 42% of the teaching staff of universities are teachers aged 40 and above, it should be noted that they are active and motivated, aimed at maintaining students' interest in the subject under study, using educational and methodological materials. complex in such a way that conducting classes was not just a formality, but a process of productive mastering and consolidation of knowledge. Motivation for successful educational interaction should characterize the activities of teachers using modern information and communication technologies in teaching the subject. The basis of the teacher's professional motivation is interest in the subject being taught and the desire to realize oneself in the educational process of an educational institution as a competent person, which today undoubtedly includes computer literacy. The teacher must constantly strive to master new methods and teaching aids,
among which electronic teaching aids occupy key positions, since the modern generation of students are representatives of generation Z, “digital people” who have grown and formed in the context of the increasing digitalization of society. For students of this generation, personal computers, working with gadgets, accessing, searching and retrieving information on the Internet are the realities of their daily life.
Therefore, the very way of modern life puts forward the requirement for the optimal introduction of information and communication technologies in the educational process so that the teacher can convey educational information, and the student can perceive and assimilate it using these means. That is, the teacher must not only develop students, but also develop himself. Concerning the motivation of the teacher, it is necessary to emphasize the increase in the level of motivation of students to study the subject, caused by the transition to a distance learning format of the university. Students are actively involved in communicative interaction through an electronic webinar with teachers. Students are present in full and more active. Perhaps this is due to the fact that, being full-time students and getting used to eye contact with the teacher, trying to answer as quickly as possible, they thereby strive to draw the teacher's attention to their answer. In addition, the visual assessment of students in the group decreases, since the assessment of the result of communicative interaction is carried out not only on the basis of the perception of the information heard, but also the visual perception of the subject performing speech activity.Students who experienced a "clamp" in the classroom when conducting communication at oflaine lesson, much calmer and more confident began to speak and answer questions. A significant indicator of the success of the emergency transition to distance learning is the use of blended learning in recent years, which combines face-to-face learning (or the so-called “classroom” learning system), e-learning and distance learning technologies. Currently, there is no clear delineation of the concepts that determine the teacher's interaction with the use of modern information and communication technologies. The use of computer- assisted learning opportunities is called e-learning, distance learning, online learning. Distance learning technologies are understood as educational technologies implemented mainly with the use of information and telecommunication networks with indirect (at a distance) interaction between students and teachers
”(8). The distance learning format proposed by the institute in the realities of the modern situation combines distance learning and online learning (interactive learning through the use of the Internet), expands the scope of the educational institution by using the Zoom platform in meeting mode for active communicative interaction between students and teachers. The effectiveness of the educational process in a given format is enhanced by the maximum use of educational and methodological materials (collections, workshops, textbooks, tests, methodological recommendations, etc.) of the university's electronic document base, access to which is open to students, teachers and university staff. The pedagogical activity of teachers is aimed at adapting the basic approaches of education and teaching methods to the existing realities of distance interaction with students. When implementing training in a distance format, the essence of e-learning is preserved, which is characterized by the interactivity of the student's interaction with the student and the individualization of training. Students are equally involved in the communication process, and the educational process carried out using the Zoom platform has shown the possibility of interactive interaction organized, controlled and directed by the teacher. The implementation of online interaction involves the students' independent preparation of the material and the fulfillment of tasks determined by the teacher in advance. Communicative interaction online is realized through a question-and-answer form of communication, questions, topics / situation tasks, discussion of a clinical case, a paper patient, etc., in addition, during the discussion, the students themselves may suggest other scenarios for the disclosure of the topic under study. In the latter case, the teacher needs to control and guide the study of the topic, taking into account the basic knowledge of
students, conduct a discussion taking into account the topic of the lesson, focusing on behavior, self- organization, the ability to express and defend one's opinion, develop vocabulary, a culture of mutual communication. As in the classroom, online classes require the teacher's close attention to the interaction of students with different levels of competence. Lack of visual contact between students often leads to decreased activity. The teacher needs to constantly manage the involvement of each student in various types of educational activities conducted online (6).
However, it should be noted that the concept of "interactivity" has two meanings in pedagogy. On the one hand, interactivity characterizes the organization of the educational process based on the development of a joint solution through exchange of views, discussion and interaction. On the other hand, interactivity is used to describe the different ways of interaction of teachers and students with the environment of application of information and communication technologies (interactive training program, interactive whiteboard, interactive training course). The dual nature of this concept is a consequence of the existence in pedagogical science of terms such as "interactive teaching methods" and interactive teaching "(3,6).
This is such an organization of the student's cognitive activity, which presupposes his active involvement in dialogue interaction with both the teacher and the students. The second term involves the involvement of students in the learning process using a computer as a learning tool. These methods are also used when working in a remote format in a meeting mode, which undoubtedly implies the implementation of training using a computer. In this regard, it should be noted that there is a lack of sufficiently interactive training courses designed for a specific program. An interactive course, which is an electronic textbook, the filling of which, in addition to texts in electronic format, is accompanied by video and sound accompaniment, allows you to stimulate the student's independent work (5). The use of an interactive training course in teaching contributes to the growth of students' information culture and the development of computer literacy. It should be emphasized that the use of an interactive training course in teaching is such an organization of the educational process, which entails the creation of a comfortable learning atmosphere, which as a result leads to the formation of a high level of self-organization and communicative competencies, ensures the productivity of educational activities. Distance learning contributes to the development of educational independence of students. Independence as a form of intellectual activity determines the development of planning skills, self-control and self-esteem. The development of these skills presupposes knowledge of general rules of how to act in the given situations of the educational process, and then in situations of the professional sphere (4, 11). Undoubtedly, this problem is solved by interacting with the teacher, it saves time for both the teacher and the student. The timeliness of checking the tasks completed by students and the teacher's commentary on the work of students is of no small importance in distance learning, it forms in students an understanding of the teacher's interest as a result of mastering the discipline by students. There is no doubt that students are most motivated when they receive instant feedback. For this purpose, the university has created an extensive bank of test items, which is used by the bulk of teachers, since this kind of control is characterized by a high level of objectivity. To conduct classes, the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute has chosen a single platform for the synchronous system Moodl on the ZOOM platform, using which students and teachers carry out interactive interaction. It should be noted that this is a communication tool that allows conducting classes focused on the communication of participants in the educational process. At the same time, the existing position according to which distance learning represents “a well-thought-out interactive learning environment for any learner, anywhere and at any time, using the resources of various digital technologies along with other forms of teaching materials that are suitable for an open learning environment. E-
learning makes the transition from a data management system to a knowledge management system (10,11).
Distance learning is a purposeful process of interaction of subjects and learning objects with each other and with teaching aids. The conditions for the effective implementation of distance learning are consistency, inclusiveness, adapted work programs and modern equipment, as well as a unified electronic educational environment, where a highly qualified teaching staff, constantly improving their qualifications, plays an important role. There are a number of disadvantages in distance learning that affect the organization of the quality of education. These are: insufficiently close communication of the teacher with the students, the strong dependence of the quality of training on the technical equipment of the equipment, the language barrier and unsatisfactory interaction between the students, the time difference in large areas, the lack of due attention to information security, the subjective feeling of overload by the students by the information.
Temporary difficulties, this is insufficient computer literacy of teachers and trainees, the lack of experience in distance learning, as well as the presence of teachers and students who are not yet ready for this method, teaching who prefer classical education can also be an obstacle in the organization of quality education (8, 11).
In conclusion, it should be noted that, despite the relevance of the distance education format in the current conditions and the effectiveness of the use of electronic learning systems, this form of education cannot be considered a full-fledged alternative to full-time education in higher educational institutions.
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