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View of Recent Readings of Sibawayh Terminology (Research is based on a PhD Thesis)


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Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

Recent Readings of Sibawayh Terminology (Research is based on a PhD Thesis)

Conducted by: Yasameen Adnan Neamah 1, Supervised by: Prof. Dr. Allawi Sadir Jazea 2

1, 2

Ibn Rushd College, University of Baghdad, Iraq.




Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds, and Blessings and Peace be upon His Messenger, who was sent as a Mercy to the Worlds, our Faithful Prophet Muhammad, Blessings of God be upon him and his Progeny and grant him peace.

To Proceed:

The terminology of the book occupied a wide area in the Arab heritage blogs, as well as the books of modern researchers because they represent the nectar of what the early Arab scholars left to their students for the Arab scholars who disagreed with them, regardless of the differences in the owners of those codes and their sects. In view of the cognitive, spatial, temporal and cultural extension achieved by the terminology of the book, modern researchers have directed to read these terms as a reading expressing the extent of their passion in uncovering the contents of a Sibawayh book and the thought of its owner first, and expressing the accuracy of their observation and the extent of their benefit from what the modern linguistic lesson produced in reading the terms of the book secondly.

In this research, we tried to shed light on the patterns of those modern readings that modern researchers followed in reading the terms of the book, and after presenting a brief summary of each reading, the title of which was reserved for Sibawayh or his book exclusively, or Sibawayh and his book were two parts of the title, we found that they are three styles, which are: Holistic reading, sectoral reading, and single form reading. It reveals the two most important axes around which the effort of modern researchers has revolved, the first is the formal analysis, and the second is the semantic analysis.


Research in the field of the terminology requires the researcher's indispensable matters, the most important of which are being guarded with the culture of the scientific field in which he works and the accuracy in following up the scientific texts that contain the research samples. Because that would lead the researcher to the desired scientific truth or bring him closer to it. It is fair to mention here that the Arab researcher was keen to approach the grammatical concepts that Sibawayh had dressed in certain words and sought to harness them in describing the grammatical content firmly in his mind. This is what we discern from the readings in our hands that indicate a high linguistic sense and a diversity of viewpoints. And the accuracy of the observation prepared for a researcher without others, that these readings provided us with the opportunity to benefit


from Sibawayh's book by revealing the two most important axes around which a Sibawayh effort revolved. The first is the nature of the formation of grammatical terms in the book or the nature of the expression of grammatical concepts in the book, and the terminological problems that are monitored by the Arab researcher, and the second axis is the semantic aspect and the nature of the relationships between those terms, which express in the first degree the overall coherence of the system, especially if the term is used on more than one linguistic level 1.

Preliminary Introduction Essence of the Term

The flags of Arab civilization, even if they did not surround the studies on the science of terminology, left us with a huge legacy that is evidenced in the multiplication of books. If the Arab reader was proficient in interrogating it, he would conclude that there is a theory that tends to integrate in the development of idiomatic expressions, and perhaps the first information mentioned in the Arab heritage is the information that It was mentioned in the saying of Al-Jahiz (255 AH): “Every industry has words that have occurred to its people after examining others, and it was not afflicted with their industry 2 until after there were problems between it and that industry.” This text indicates the adherence of the term to the science to which it belongs, without being dressed with it by anyone else. In other words, the relationship between science and its terms is close. As one cannot do without the other, just as we do not realize the meaning of a sign except through a symbol called the signifier, so is the matter of sciences with their terminological apparatus, and from here it becomes clear to us that the weight of knowledge in all sciences depends on their terminology. This explains for us the emergence of a private sectoral dictionary for each of the known sciences. If we probe the scientific term and compare it with the common dictionary balance in the language that carries the concepts of that science, we will find a quantity of the vocabulary of science not included in the verbal balance circulating among the people of that language, and none of it is included. Differs in its significance; Because he responded to the requirements of this science in accordance with the law of semantic transformation 3. Which gives him the opportunity to belong to the idiomatic proof of a science, and thus this term becomes “a tool for scientific research, and through him understanding is achieved between scientists in the affairs of scientific subjects, and there is no science without verbal templates that define it" 4. In view of the great importance that the term has acquired in the field of each science, we find the Arab researcher has tried to find out the terms of the book that represent the keys to Arabic science and to investigate its concepts and movement within linguistic texts, using at the same time the new intellectual principles in reading these terms correctly. There is no doubt that delving into the details of what resulted from these serious

1 One of the texts that we are proud of in the context of this research is what the linguist Carter said that

“the use of similar technical terms - the same term in more than one meaning - at more than one linguistic level resulting from the overall coherence of the system.” Siboye in the books of Western linguists, Michael Carter Sepoy’s Book Model: 117 Citing: Carter: Sibawayh, p: 145

2 Animal: 3/487

3 Introduction to the science of terminology: 11-12

4 Linguistic investigations from the life of the Arabic language: 110


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

attempts will make us in front of a new reading approaching a thought in one way or another that reflects the reality of the book and the reality of its terminology.

The Term: It is a "linguistic symbol specific to a single concept" 5, and what the researcher looks for in the field of the Arabic language is that the linguistic terms that ancient linguists gave to certain linguistic concepts are accurate terms that are far from obscurity and ambiguity in the meaning. "The concept and meaning are united in particular, for each of them is the image that occurs in the mind or in it, and they are different in terms of intent and obtaining, as it is in that the image is intended by the word named meaning, and in that it takes place in the mind called the concept (the scouts of art terminology) and in the faculties of the father of the concept of survival It is the mental image, whether or not the word is placed in its parts, just as the meaning is the mental image in terms of placing the word in its parts" 6. However, the readings in our hands revealed the fact that the book’s reality expresses a special approach to terminology.

The First section: Readings in Light of the Formal Analysis of Terminology:

The task of developing a term is not an easy task, rather it is a difficult task that requires the author to enable us to study the material and its jurisprudence in the language and to encompass everything related to the field of science to which a term belongs, in addition to the development of science itself that requires the formulation of new terms. Based on all of this, we can truly understand what a researcher made. As he divided the terms of the book into two parts after looking at an objective look at the texts of Sibawayh, the first section: includes terms attributed to Sibawayh in one way or another to one of the grammarians – one of the founders of this science - the researcher sees that, as if they belong to Sibawayh; because he verified and used it.

As for the second section:

It includes terms that Sibawayh did not ascribe to a specific person. Therefore, the researcher tends to attribute it to Sibawayh, and in the context of the study and analysis, he adds to it the terms of Al-Farahidi (d.175 AH) due to the abundance of the latter and their overlap together in the Sibawayh code 7. And it seems that this is what Dr. Issam Farouk also thought of; He mentioned in his study that the terminology of the book may not be from the work of Sibawayh, but rather from the launch of his sheikhs, especially Hebron - may God have mercy on him - on the assumption that Hebron has terms that he did not include in the introduction to his dictionary, or he created synonyms for what was mentioned in that introduction, he heard them from him His student, and he registered it on his blog 8.

5 See: Reading in the term Sebwayh Analysis and Criticism: 68 and 71, citing Standardization Of Terminology: 17

6 The syntactic term and the origin of connotation is an epistemological and original study of naming grammatical terms through Al-Zamakhshari: 173-174, and see: The science of the term, its theoretical foundations and its scientific applications: 321

7 See: Reading in the term Sebwayh, Analysis and Criticism: Research published at Yarmouk University - Jordan by Dr. Ali Tawfiq Al-Hamad: 76

8 See: Sibawayh's centrality in Arab culture: the work of the international scientific symposium organized by the Division of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts - Tetouan - 2016 AD: 230, 233


What reinforces this is that one of the researchers mentioned that Sibawayh and others made use of phonemic terms inherited from Hebron that took various patterns that were directed by the development that the research witnessed in the time of his contemporaries. The direct employment of a range of Hebron terms in phonological research, and the indirect employment that took multiple forms, including:

- Employing the term with the extension of the concept.

- Employing the term while including a new concept that differs from the previous concept.

- Replacing the term with another word with a change in its concept, either by decrease or increase 9.

Dr. Ali Tawfiq wrote a group of terms on the terminology of the first section, which are summarized as follows: that they are few and primitive terms, and represent a linguistic and sensory description 10. It is doubtful that this observation directs our minds to the fact that these terms may be a product of the previous stage and not a product of their stage 11.

As for the terminology of the second section

It is - according to what he said - coupled with examples, and the secret of that lies - from his point of view - in that Hebron and Sibawayh felt the strangeness of the terminology they give to concepts born of their linguistic activity, so they deliberately represented by reference 12. Dr.

Salam Bazzi attributed this matter to the absence of the limit, and stated that the absence of the limit may be an incitement to the expansion of the movement patterns of grammatical terms in the book, and this explains the existence of multiple patterns of that movement, most notably: the explanation and representation 13.

At the same time, he admits that the absence of boundaries in the book was not a complete absence, especially in the message of the book. He argues that the boundaries in the book have a function that outweighs that of the later grammarians' codes. Because the boundaries in these codes determine what is common and stable among specialists on the basis of the presentation of the term and its alone, such as tightening the material of this science. As for the book, the term may be an indication of the creation of Sibawayh for him, or that he includes new meanings that did not have it, or that he uses them to denote concepts that were not common during his reign.

Because when he uses the common terms in his covenant, it is rather that he proves them without limit, and this is what he really did in many of the terms of the book. That is, the early grammarians were humbled by his concepts 14.

9 See: The effect of Hebron phoneme terminology and methodology on studies of his contemporaries: 23-25

10 See: Reading in the term Sibawayh, Analysis and Criticism: Research: 76

11 See: For example, what was attributed to Isa bin Omar al-Thaqafi, Abu Amr ibn al-Alaa, Abu al-Khattab al- Akbar al-Akbar, and Younus bin Habib, see the same source: 78_80, 73

12 See: Same source: 84

13 See: The movement of the grammatical term in a book Sibawayh: research published in the Journal of Lexicography _ Tunisia, Issue 24, 2008: 113_114

14 See: Same source: 115


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

What we conclude from this is that Sibawayh was aware of the relationship between the three terms (concept, term, and limit), with evidence that he invested them in his book to express those grammatical concepts and help the recipient to understand and comprehend them. But there is an important issue that we cannot turn a blind eye to in the context of that, which was mentioned by Dr. Ali Tawfiq in the course of his reading, which states that the relationship between the mentioned terms may be in two forms or two methods: The first is how it is summarized in the fact that the specialist after he has a mental conception of a certain thing that exists. In the outside world, he may limit or define it, and this is a first step that suggests understanding that thing and forming a mental perception of it, but the speaker or specialist has not yet reached to link that concept to the conceptual family to which it belongs, and then choose an indicative term.

The second: Its method is summarized in that when a specialist is formed, he has a perception of a specific thing; For he can relate it to the family of concepts to which he belongs, so he makes a linguistic symbol indicative of this symbol, which is the term. On his mind. In other words: that the researcher found in the book the verbal description, the limit, or the definition, and sufficed with expressing some of the concepts with that, towards: his expression of the name of the machine and the compound name in a mixture, and many other citizens. This was explained by the lack of clarity or sufficiency of the term in expressing the linguistic concept with a clarity that is reassuring to it, and this is a widely accepted interpretation. Because the book was the first code that reached us, in its art, and grammar had not matured with the passage of generations of grammarians 15.

There appears to be support for this view. One of the researchers went to justify Sibawayh's silence about the ten terms that express the voices exits with his Sheikh, Hebron, with two things


The first of which is: That some of the control terminology for vocal exits are far from accurate in its connotation of its content, towards: the term Postalveolar, and the term Alveolar.

The second: Sibawayh’s preference of description over the term when specifying the output, because the description gives him the opportunity to define the audio output with great accuracy.

It is noticeable that the terminology movement in the book goes in opposite directions, the first direction is represented by the terminology movement from the specialized language to the general language, and the second: its opposite 17. Here, we must mention a question that may be going on in the mind of the reader after seeing this reading, formulating it according to the following: Did Sibawayh rely on explanation, representation and boundaries only in order to clarify the concept or remove confusion and ambiguity in the term?

The answer to this question is as follows: Sibawayh dealt with the issue of ambiguity of the term in several ways, including: explanation, representation and setting of boundaries, but he resorted

15 See: Reading in the term Sibawayh Analysis and Criticism: 74_75

16 See: The effect of Hebron's phonemic terminology and methodology on contemporary studies: 27

17 See: The term movement in Sibawayh's Book: 117_121

For examples of these expressions, see: Reading in the term Sebwayh Analysis and Criticism: 99_103


to specifying terms also in order to define their connotations, thus forming a lot of syntactic terms compound from two vocabulary, whether this is mediated by the descriptive structure or the attribution, the additional, the affective, or the mixture. He was not satisfied with that, but formed a lot of idiomatic compounds consisting of two or more expressions. Dr. Ali Tawfiq mentioned that these expressions lack brevity. Therefore, it is closer to description, clarification and definition than to the technical term, and its existence is explained by the fact that it represents the product of the early stage in the emergence of the grammatical term, and tended to represent a definition and description of the concept before developing the accurate and appropriate term 18. If we go back to the division that this researcher mentioned of the terms of the book, we find that he mentioned that the terminology of the second section did not come from Hebron - may God have mercy on him - as titles for the chapters of grammar, as is seen in the books of late grammarians, and that the idea of tabulation is crude even among his student.

This suggests to him that these two venerable worlds did not intend to make their use of these grammatical terms a fixed and imperative rule 19. What seems to me is that there is a justification for this problem, which is Dr. Khadija Al-Hadithi's saying, "He tries to give the idea of the research in his title and puts it for him, so the title lengthens to include all the paragraphs of the search, so the title becomes a detailed index of the section below it more than it is a brief title indicating its subject" 20. We find in the researcher's reading Tawfiq Qureira what supports this saying. The researcher went on to say that there are two real reasons for which the length of the terminology of the compound addresses is a complex structure. The first reason is that Sibawayh used to include central terms in his titles and combined with them expressions that denote idiomatic features specific to him. He wanted his titles to give a clear picture of the chapter's content 21.

The second section: readings in light of the semantic analysis of Terminology:

We mentioned in the first section that Sibawayh used two methods to express the grammatical concepts that he wanted to instill in the minds of the learners, namely, verbal description or definition, and the launch of specific terms on certain concepts 22. However, this speech lacks some subtle details, something of which Dr. Ali Tawfiq also mentioned in the course of his research. He stated that the terms of the book can be divided into distinct groups, represented by the following:

First: Terms that came with accurate and mature artistic connotations that were accepted and popular after Sibawayh to this day as they are. It represents the most widely used and widespread terminology in the book, and if this indicates anything, it indicates - from the researcher's point of view - a clear indication of the maturity of Sibawayh's thought and the thought of his grammatical, linguistic, cognitive and logical masters at the same time. Because putting accurate terminology successful indicates the mastery of the specialist in all kinds of sciences and

18 See: the grammatical term: 121, and see: reading in the term Sibawayh Analysis and Criticism: 85

19 Sibawayh, his life and book: 124, and Sebawayh's book on modern grammatical studies in Iraq 1950- 2000AD: 51

20 See: Complex terminological units in a complex structure in Sibawayh Book: 31

21 See: reading in the term Sibawayh Analysis and Criticism 74_75

22 See: Same source: 85_91


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

knowledge. No one - from the previous and the subsequent ones - can deny the merit of Sibawayh and his teachers for establishing and understanding Arabic grammar issues and their terminology 23.

Second: Terms in which he expresses certain concepts; But he returned and expressed his understandings in other terminological synonyms, and this act suggests to the reader that these terms are not yet stable, and the reason for that - from his point of view - is that they represent a product of the early stages of the term’s origin and existence. The researcher found that Sibawayh used in this group linguistic expressions with general linguistic connotations and did not mean their technical idiomatic connotations. He also uses some synonymous terms rarely or little use, in parallel with his use of the rest of the synonymous terms that refer to the same concept 24, and it seems to the researcher that the researcher did not come up with all the synonymous idioms indicating a specific concept, but rather mentioned what was available to him of those terminological terms 25, and this scientific fact is understood by all Whoever reads the places of these terms in the study of Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim, which we will talk about in the following pages, under God’s Almighty Will.

Third: Terms that Sibawayh gave to a certain concept, then he called it back to another concept in another place, and it is like the common verbal. For example: the term (letter). What seems to the researcher is that the author of the study did not deduce all the connotations that these terms carry, but rather his deduction of the connotations was incomplete, but he was better at explaining the use of the term in the same section. He believes that the reason for this to happen is due to two things, the first: the instability of the grammatical term with its first connotation, and this often happens at the beginning of the term's development and release, and the second:

the specialist’s sense that the new concept is close to the old concept, and that this term is appropriate for the second concept as well. There is no doubt that this act causes confusion and confusion in the understanding of what is meant by that term 26.

Fourth: Terms that came with their linguistic meaning. This type of terminology is used for some concepts at an early stage. And it may be called sometimes synonymous with well-known and common terms, and it may be called due to its general linguistic connotations, for example the term (subtraction) and (Turk). And the neighbor and the traitor in the sense of adverbs and adverbial clauses 27.

23 See: Reading in Sibawayh Terminology Analysis and Criticism: 92, and the grammatical term in Sibawayh Book: A Study in Semantic Interrelationships The terminology _ and overlapping terms _ and the terminological synonyms: 382_383

24 See: Reading in Sibawayh Terminology Analysis and Criticism: 92, and the grammatical term in Sibawayh Book: A Study in Semantic Interrelationships The terminology _ and overlapping terms _ and the terminological synonyms: 382_383

25 See: For example: what he mentioned of terms indicating the plural of fractionation, and what he mentioned of terms that are synonymous with deletion, see: the same source: 95_96, and see what Dr.

Ahmed Ibrahim Huneidi extracted from terminology expressing the collection of fractionation in general, in his book: the term The grammar in Sibawayh's book, a study of the terminological joint semantic relations _ the overlap of terms _ and the terminological synonym: 330_331, and on the deletion: 339_ 344

26 See: Reading in Sibawayh Terminology, Analysis and Criticism: 96_97

27 See: the same source: 97_ 99


Fifth: Terms consisting of two or more words, and they may be a sentence or more, meaning that they lack brevity. It is closer to description, clarification and definition than to the technical term.

The research has tended to suggest that these expressions represent a definition and description of the concept before putting the exact and appropriate term 28.

And it seems that there is another reading that reinforces this reading: Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim shed light during his reading on three terminological phenomena that were manifested by him while looking at the terminology of the book and the surrounding linguistic contexts. The first phenomenon is the phenomenon of multiple connotations of idiomatic expressions in different contexts, alerting at the same time to the difficulty and delusion resulting from this semantic multiplicity of the reader who has not practiced the methodology of Sibawayh in his book, as well as the erroneous understanding of the meaning of the word taken on the clearest grammatical meanings it expresses.

Among the examples cited by the researcher as evidence for that understanding is the misconception to which the term Ellipsis was subjected in the context of Sibawayh's hadith about the exception with (not be) and (not) by the investigator of the Concise, Sheikh Muhammad Abd al-Khaleq. This example was mentioned after presenting the most important connotations expressed by the term “Ellipsis” and its verb Ellipse and what it is constructed of (Ellipse) in Sibawayh book, which is summarized by the following connotations 29:

1- Ellipsis in the sense of the pronoun.

2- Ellipsis in the sense of concealment and estimation.

3- Ellipsis in the sense of omission.

4- Ellipsis or connecting the word with the pronoun.

5- The implicit meaning of the pronoun.

6- Ellipsis that the pronoun expresses the explicit noun.

To clarify through this that the grammatical expression expresses aspects of the meanings, and that failure to take this matter into account leads to the joining of some faces to a face that was not wanted by the author of the text. As evidenced by the fact that the investigator came to Sibawayh saying: “This is the chapter (not be) and (is/ are not), for they both are so similar. And if they come with the meaning of exception, then they have ellipsis, on this the meaning of exception applies to them ... And that is your saying: What people have come to me is not Zaid, and come to me ... The addressee bear in his mind that one of the people coming have Zaid, even as if he said: Some of them is Zaid. It is as if he said: Some of them are not Zaid, and he left the adjective (Some) as an exclusion, just as he left the appearance of: for a while 30. Then he commented on him by saying: “From this it becomes clear to us that Al-Mubarrad agrees with Sibawayh in that the subject of except, only, is not, and not be, if the subject after them has (Fatha َ) - an implicit pronoun, returns to some of the understanding from the previous

28 For examples of these expressions, see: Reading in the term Sibawayh, Analysis and Criticism: 99_ 103

29 See: The grammatical term in a book Sibawayh A study in the semantic joint-terminological relations _ overlapping terms _ terminological synonyms: 12

30 Book: 2/347


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

speech 31. They understood that ellipsis in the previous text is like opting for an implicit pronoun.

But this understanding is false. As Sibawayh did not respond neither by implication nor estimation here to the pronoun, but rather wanted by ellipsis here to estimate and implicate in exchange of explication. With evidence, he followed it by saying: “And he left the display of some dispensation, just as he left the display in some time.” That is, he also left showing the name of for a while, which is a name for (a while 32), meaning: the time for now is not necessary


The study revealed that the file was in agreement with Sibawayh in that what is meant by the compilation mentioned in the aforementioned text is the meaning of concealment and appreciation, and this is what is understood from his saying:

“This is the exclusion section of it is not, and not be: I know that they are not an exception without having a pronoun, as I described to you in the exclusion and absence, and that is your saying: The people came to me, it is not more, and the people came to me, it is not more, as if he said: Some of them are not, and some of them are not” 34. He mentions that the word pronoun here came in the way that the file referred to it in the exception and the void, that is, in his saying: “As for the absence of a promise, they are two verbs that stand up after them, and that is your saying: The people came to me except for Zaid, because when he said: The people came, it happened to the one who heard that Some of them Zaid 35 [such and such or that it is focused on the story, and it is news that in this context], he said: Except for Zaid, that is, some of them exceeded Zaid. What is clear from this text is that the word pronoun came to mean (the implicated name is subtle); For he has implicitly hidden it with the word (some), which is an adverb to the implicit pronouns understood from the previous speech 36.

Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim’s proliferation of texts confirming the overlapping of grammatical terms in the book is evidence of his interest in Sibawayh terminology in general, and the integrity of understanding and accuracy of choice in particular. That is because what Sibawayh made in his book, which is the expression in a specific term that has a specific content for another meaning, has another term that expresses it, which may be difficult for the reader to perceive and determine its placements. Therefore, we can say that what the researcher presented in his study will increase the opportunity to benefit from Sibawayh's book 37. To clarify this, we use one of the models that the researcher cited in his research, to demonstrate the overlap of the term speech with the term speaking, which is a saying by Sibawayh: And I know that what was mentioned in the speech contains one small letter, and nothing is deviated from it except that which is irrelevant if it is an anomaly 38. In addition, he recorded the term “speech” - in the context of

31 Brief footnote: 4/428

32 Book: 2/347

33 See: The grammatical term in a book Sibawayh A study in the semantic joint-terminological relations _ overlapping terms _ terminological synonyms: 13-14

34 Brief: 4/428

35 The same source: 4/426

36 See: The grammatical term in a book Sibawayh A study in the semantic joint-terminological relations _ overlapping terms _ terminological synonyms: 15

37 See: Same source: 209

38 Book: 4/218


talking about the terminological commonality - six meanings that were mentioned according to the following order: (The word and the useful term is a benefit that is well tolerated, and the speech of people other than poetry, the way the Arabs speak, and what was influenced by the Arabs that are invoked by poetry or prose, something that is uttered or spoken, useful or not useful) 39. What follows from this is two things, the first thing: that the term speech overlaps with the term Speaking 40, and the second thing: that the connotation of this term has clearly expanded and encompasses the whole speech process 41. Here it should be noted that the Iraqi researcher Ghada Ghazi drew a balance between the semantic analysis of the term speech presented by the researcher Abdul-Jabbar Abdul-Amir and the semantic analysis of the same term that the researcher Sabah Abdul-Hadi presented in his study. It became clear to her that the researcher Abdul-Jabbar believes that the term “speech” had broad connotations and an effective role in all chapters of the book; This matter returned to him with ambiguity, so the term speech was considered an ambiguous terminology in terms of meaning according to Sibawayh 42. As for the researcher Sabah, in his opinion, Sibawayh employed this term in performing various meanings

43. And I concluded from these two studies that the researchers agreed that the term speech carried three connotations, which are 44:

1- Composition elements that include types of speech.

2- Sentence.

3- Discourse.

However, they differed in the way they process these types. At the time when the researcher Abdul-Jabbar concluded that what is meant by the term speech is that it denotes more than one term, whether these words represent all the varieties of the Arabic word or represent one of them 45. The researcher, Sabah, concludes with the conclusion that "the word is a holistic concept that refers to the sum of types of speech, and that the word only applies to one type, be it a name, a verb, or a letter 46." The researcher Ghada saw that what the last researcher said is closer to Murad Sibawayh by using the term "speech," and she explained that by saying "because Sibawayh did not use this term except when he was speaking on the three types of speech,

39 See: The grammatical term in a book Sibawayh A study in the semantic joint-terminological relations, overlapping terms, the terminological synonym: 158_162

40 See: the same source: 210_212

41 See: Sibawayh Book on Modern Grammatical Studies in Iraq 1950 AD - 2000 AD: 71

42 See: The term of speech, its concepts, and its discussion in the book of Sibawayh, PhD Thesis:

Introduction. See: Sibawayh Book on Modern Grammatical Studies in Iraq 1950 AD - 2000 AD: 66

43 See: the grammatical term in Sibawayh Book: 10, and see: Sibawayh Book on Modern Grammatical Studies in Iraq 1950 CE_ 2000 CE: 67

44 Sibawayh's book on modern grammatical studies in Iraq 1950 CE_ 2000 CE: 67, and it is worth noting in this context that Dr. Said Buhairi had preceded these researchers the three semantics to derive three meanings for this term from the book. The second is the sentence, and the third meaning is the prose. This suggested to him that there is a gradient in the broadening of the meaning of this term. Sees: Elements of grammatical theory in Sibawayh book An attempt to reform in light of the lexical-functional trend: 162

45 See: The term of speech, its concepts and discussions in Sibawayh Book: 6_7, and see: Sibawayh Book on Modern Grammatical Studies in Iraq 1950 AD _2000 AD: 67

46 The grammatical term in Sibawayh Book: 4, and see: Sibawayh Book on Modern Grammatical Studies in Iraq 1950 AD - 2000 AD: 67


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

including his saying:" Source of any Knowledge is to speak in Arabic" 47. And other places that show that (the word) was launched and wanted by all kinds of speech 48. As for the connotation of this term on (sentence) or (composition); The researchers expressed it accurately, which made it easy for the author of the study to reach this big difference between the two concepts. While the researcher Ghada reckoned that the researcher Abdul-Jabbar tried, through his discussion of the term speech and its connotation of composition, to shed light on Sibawayh’s attention to the composition "and that the concept of structure in him is only achieved through the idea of building, that is, building a word on another word, and that this construction is not achieved. By the relationship of the chain of transmission alone, but rather by the parts of the composition that he called (complementary) or what is known as (al-fadla), which relates to the verb or the name, not to the point of the chain of transmission, and contributes to achieving the meanings required to be performed from the general composition image 49. Because he linked it to the building and did not associate it with the chain of transmission. As for the researcher, Sabah Abd al-Hadi, he linked the words in its significance to the structure of the chain of transmission alone 50. As for the significance of the term itself on the discourse; It is a sign that the two researchers turned to, but one of them was satisfied with the reference 51, and the other provided a thorough study in it, and through this study it appears that Sibawayh’s view of language was a realistic view that takes care of the linguistic reality used, and that Sibawayh takes into account during the description, analysis and interpretation that the Arabic discourse comes in three levels. She is the Holy Quran, poetry and prose. He is fully aware of the big difference between each level 52. There is no doubt that this budget revealed to us the capabilities of the Iraqi researcher in analyzing the terms of the book and at the same time revealed the best methods followed in studying the terms of the book.

As for the third phenomenon captured by the reading of Dr. Ahmed Ibrahim: It is the phenomenon of synonymy, and I will be satisfied here with presenting one example of this phenomenon, represented by the terminological expressions indicating the movement of the letter, which are 53: (Showing the letter, weight of the letter, vowel or consonant, and the expression using the word with implications or not, and reviving the letter or words derived from the word Lived).

It is worth noting in the context of this that the Iraqi researcher Ghada Ghazi realized that the terminological plurality came in the book in two forms 54: The first: represented by the use of synonymous terms. The second is the use of terms that are not synonymous. The researcher has shown, by listing examples of the two pictures and presenting the analytical results presented by

47 Book: 1/12

48 Sibawayh Book on Modern Grammatical Studies in Iraq 1950 AD - 2000 AD: 68

49 Same source: the page itself

50 Same source: 69

51 See: Same source: the page itself

52 See: The term al-kalam, its concepts, and its discussion in Sibawayh Book: 107-108, and beyond. See:

Sibawayh Book on Modern Grammatical Studies in Iraq 1950 AD _2000 AD PhD Thesis: 71

53 See: the grammatical term in a book Sibawayh A study in the semantic joint-terminological relations _ overlap of terms _ the terminological synonym 300_ 303

54 See: Sibawayh's book on modern grammatical studies in Iraq 1950 CE_ 2000 CE, PhD thesis: 52


the Iraqi researcher in uncovering the contents of these words, that this synonymy or multiplicity in the terms of the book was not arbitrary, but rather carries a sibling intent and its purpose in expressing one perception or one section by more than one term 55. It seems that Sibawayh took into account the linguistic context in choosing the term in general terms, that is, in choosing the singular term without its synonym, and in choosing the compound term without its synonym as well. And we mean by synonym here reference synonym, meaning: to refer each one of the two terms to the same reference without the meaning being one in them 56. In other words: what is meant by a synonym in this context is imperfect synonyms; Because these idiomatic expressions cannot be replaced by one of them in all contexts. This is what we conclude from one of the recent readings: Its owner mentioned that Sibawayh begins with doubling the name and says:

“Know that if you bend one, two additions will follow it. The first of them is the extension and soft letter. The second addition is (Noon ن). Then he proceeds to talk about the plural, and says:

“If you add it according to the term of duality, two additions are added to it: the first of them is the letter of extension and soft, and the second is a (Noon ن) 57. The plural masculine is similar to the method of building Duality, and this indicates a clear indication that the general context in which the idiomatic phrase was used contributed to determining Sibawayh's terminological choices. If he wanted to use the other idiomatic phrase, namely: (Plural with WAW و, and Noon ن) 58. When this allowed him to meet and not to stop at the similarity between the two operations;

Because the first idiomatic expression indicates that the method of formulating the plural of nouns is similar to the way the nouns are formulated as dualities, while the second phrase refers to the addition only; As the linguistic meaning of (waw و) and (noon ن) comes close to the linguistic connotation of Duality 59.

Reading of the Same Model

It is worth noting in the context of this that there are two readings, each of which is concerned with reading a specific term and depicting the role that the linguistic context plays in defining its concepts. Dr. Subhi Ibrahim's first reading sheds light on the term (meaning) between the linguistic levels. And it reveals certain connotations other than what was agreed upon by previous studies 60. Its owner said: “It is not intended here to link between levels according to Sibawayh, but what is meant is the semantic fields in which the term is used, in particular grammatical issues, on the one hand, and semantic issues on the other hand. Others at the same level, as this term came at the grammatical level, with connotations including: the grammatical report, the grammatical factor, the word sections (verb, noun, letter) 61. It means in the last sense the issues related to these sections, not these sections individually 62. As for the semantic level;

55 See: Same source: 53

56 The movement of the grammatical term in the book of Sibawayh, published research by the researcher Salam Bazzi Hamza in the magazine Al-Mujamiyyah _ Tunisia A.: 24, 2008: 121

57 Book: 1/17

58 Book: 1/17

59 See: The term movement in Sibawayh Book: 122_123

60 See: The term meaning in a book Sibawayh A study in the light of the science of the term, a study by Dr.

Subhi Ibrahim Al-Feki published in the Periodical Book of Language Sciences, Vol.

61 Same source: 274

62 See: Same source: 288_290


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

Several connotations became clear to him, which are: synonyms, semantics, grammatical, and connotations on the style level 63. In addition to that, the author of the reading realized that “the places in which this term (connotation) is wanted are more numerous than the other connotations of this term, and if this indicates something, it indicates that this connotation is in agreement with what contemporary linguists have agreed upon, the Arabs and the Westerners alike 64. As for the second reading: It is for the researcher Ali Al-Ashi, in which he presented the most important meanings of the article (applicable) in the book, relying on this in the linguistic context as well, while expanding the analysis of its grammatical significance to reveal the strong relationships existing between Sibawayh thinking and the meanings of its terminology, and the researcher has concluded that the content of this concept varies according to fields In which it is contained;

What is permissible in Arab poetry is the stylistic transcendence of standard formulas. As for what is permissible to speak, It includes the syntactic formulas used or possible in which the language prevails over the speakers and is the result of the qualitative, semantic and distributive properties of the vocabulary. It includes the synthetic formulas used resulting from the original structures that represent the Arabic system or sub-synthetic formulas heard by the people of the language. It also includes historical synthetic formulas that the Arabic language was about to be forgotten, which weakened its relationship with the regime in the Sibawayh era. In this context, the researcher mentions that what is permissible in relation to the maqam of uttering is a use that does not meet the conditions of the standard compositional formulas, but it is appropriate for the intentions of the speakers 65.

It is worth noting that this term is one of the terms that the grammarians borrowed from the science of jurisprudence 66, and it seems that there are readings that shed light on the presence of the terms of hadith science in the book 67. However, this does not mean that these terms are used in the same way among modern scholars. Rather, linguists subject them to the requirements of linguistic practice, and therefore it is natural that their contents differ from their previous scientific context to their new scientific context 68.” Despite this, there are abstract terms in the book that mention the terms of the philosophers represented by the terms. The following four:

presentation and essence - occurred once - type and gender - which are not occurring frequently in the book. Dr. Salam Bazzi mentioned it in his reading and explained its scarcity in the book by saying that Sibawayh preferred to use terms borrowed from social reality over those terms. In terms borrowed from social reality, he means the terms related to the family, such as (the nation), (tribe), (mother), (daughter) and (sister), and at the same time he noted that most of the other terms of the book are terms extracted from the terms of the so-called common shared-language, such as (throat), (abdomen), (fold) and (gill), in addition to other vocal field terms. All this supports the authenticity of Arabic grammar, as it indicates that the keys to this science are

63 See: Same source: 296

64 Same source: 299

65 See: What is permissible in a book Sibawayh is an introduction to the study of the grammatical term and its meanings: 10

66 See: the simple term is formed in Sibawayh's book between the lexical meaning and the idiomatic meaning: 19

67 See: The impact of the hadith reference on the term al-Sibawayh: 132, and see: The impact of the hadith study on the grammatical approach of Sibawayh: 70-75

68 The effect of hadith marjiya on the term seboyhi: 132


derived from social reality and have a link with Arabic sciences, so there is no space for extraneous terminology 69.

It seems that there is another reading that confirms to us the authenticity of Arabic grammar and the authenticity of its terminology, and that is the reading in which the reader has demonstrated the effective role of the grammatical factor in constructing grammar terms. This is because the idea of the worker, which the grammarians later called (the theory of the worker) is one of the perceptions or concepts - if not the only one - on which Sibawayh established his book, and it is logical - from the reader's point of view - to come to mind that this main concept generated other related concepts that he shared in The function of description, interpretation and tabulation stabilized over time in grammatical terms that refer to those relationships existing between the concepts of the studied phenomena 70. It seems that there are four types of relationships that have resulted in certain terms that reflect the idea of the correlation between the worker and the object and the effect produced by the worker. These relations are represented by the following four relationships 71:

1- The correlation relationship between (verb or noun) and the subject, which resulted in certain terms indicating the first element, namely: the predicate, the initiation, the subject, the verb and the constructive, and it resulted in terms indicating the second element: the attribution to it, the report, the one upon which, and the subject.

2- 2- The correlation relationship between the (verb) and the object, and the role of the object is performing the action and doing it, so the term subject emerged.

3- The relationship between them goes beyond the syncretic, so the sentence does not stop at the limits of the first action, because the worker needs more than one action to fulfill the meaning, so the term inflictions emerged.

4- The relationship between them is canceled in terms of significance and syntactic effect, so the term cancellation was established, and thus it becomes clear to us that Sibawayh when he put some terms in mind that took care of the business perception and its concepts in its creation, so its terms were coherent with the concepts and perceptions of the worker. Therefore, we find that each concept has its appropriate term capable of denoting it and the subject.

It became clear to the researcher Salam Bazzi that the transition from the lexical meanings of expressions to the idiomatic meanings in Sibawayh's book took place through only two methods:

The first way: specifying the word and narrowing the area of its use by moving it from its general linguistic meaning to an idiomatic meaning specific to this scientific field, and this is a well-known way in the Arabic linguistic lesson. The researcher represented him with the terms (assertion) and (subject), which were transferred to their idiomatic meanings by narrowing the general meaning of the general lexical meaning.

69 See: the simple term is formed in Sibawayh's book between the lexical meaning and the idiomatic meaning: 19

70 See: The idea of the worker and its effect on the construction of grammatical terms in Sibawayh: 128

71 See: Same source: 147_148


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

As for the second way taken by Sibawayh: It is the path of metaphor, due to a common relationship between the linguistic meaning of the word and the new grammatical concept, and most of that relationship is a similar relationship in which general terms are borrowed to express special concepts, and what happened to that the terms (sewer) and (references) and (abbreviation), for example 72.

Semantic Analysis of Compound Terms:

If we move to the semantic analysis of the compound terms, we find the researcher Tawfiq Qureira who proceeds in his reading from the idea of dealing with the term in his speech, and this idea necessitates that he abandons the well-known classifications and the rooting which does not benefit the researcher in the discourse much. Therefore, in his reading, he mentions two types of idiomatic compounds 73 and defines the function that each type performs based on the role assigned to each of them in the discourse. The first type: is the complex nominative compounds, and the second type: is what is called (the expressive-talkable sentence): it is the sentence that describes the language in the language, the first type plays an active role in naming and reciting, meaning that its role is specific, while the second type (verb) plays an active role in the speech;

Because its function is expressive. This does not mean, in what it means, that the verb is excluded from the designation framework, nor that the noun is forbidden for him to perform an expressive function, but rather the distribution here according to the originality of the function that the idiomatic discourse gives to either of them 74. After examining the text of the book, the researcher finds that the idea of separating the two types in the book is not free of some difficulties during its application, including 75:

1- Close interrelation between the two types.

2- The length of the compound term, sometimes causes great confusion in its ratio, so it cannot be included under the term expository speech, nor under the name that performs the assignment function, rather it is a combination of both.

The best example, from the researcher's point of view, is what Sibawayh wrote in a complex form. The researcher merely looked at these compounds according to their relationship to the two previous posts, diverting his gaze from these methodological problems that might distance him from the plan he had accepted for his research 76.

The researcher has reached two other major divisions of these terminological compounds mentioned in the first book: according to the degree of their composition from simple to

72 See: The simple term is formed in the book Sibawayh between the lexical meaning and the idiomatic meaning: 18-19

73 They are “expressions formed by means of contract and syntax of more than one phrase drawn by a specific, attribution, additional or adjective syntactic relationship ... they are not necessarily arbitrary in relation to the idiomatic noun with its conception, because the term chooses the syntactic relationship that is most appropriate with the essence of the nomenclature. In the idiomatic verb he finds usefulness in the idiomatic nouns in constructing his idiomatic discourse "Complex idiomatic units in a complex composition in a book Sibawayh published research by the researcher Tawfiq Qureira in the Journal of Al-Mu'jamiyyah _ Tunisia Issue: 20, 2004 AD: 28

74 Seen: Same source: the page itself

75 See: Same source: 29

76 See: Same source: 29


complex, under this section there are two categories of compound conventions: a category of simple synthesis consisting of two related elements. And a second class, the degree of its synthesis, is complex, in which one end of the idiomatic compound observes a compound in turn.

And the second division: was according to the types of structures, and predominantly in this division are the following compounds: conductivity, attribute, additional, and semi-attribution 77. The researcher tried to stand on the specific roles of the simple idiomatic compounds mentioned in the book and in other grammatical writings, and he found that this type of compounds plays certain assignment roles, which are 78:

1- Setting the subsection.

2- Specifying the types.

3- Standard specification.

4- Appointment of a general social or linguistic nature.

5- Setting some concepts with reference to what they are formed from.

As for complex conventional compounds; Each type plays a nominal role, according to the following:

First: the connected compound: The researcher sees that this type of idiomatic compound is often mentioned in the headings of the doors as being one of the specific idiomatic expressions and is often a composite of the connecting device (what), And from it Sibawayh said: (What does the action of the verb) 79. It seems to the researcher that the structure of this type of compounds is closer to descriptive than to the ability to define concepts accurately. The peculiarity of the descriptive 80 in it is that the basic concept, which is the element in which it is described by the relation, is presented with an obscure wording in generalization and ambiguous, which is the connected noun, although it is possible to translate it with a name from the names of the categories, chapters, or others 81. In the context of this research, the researcher recorded a very important observation that the position of the connected compound is not in the field of idioms, but in the field of concepts and boundaries. That is, it is better for them to make identifiers rather than specifics 82.

Second: the participle: In grammar, (the transitive object that is transcended from the verb to the object). This type does not differ from the viewpoint of the researcher - from the previous type in the descriptive approach that imprinted the specific nature. But the descriptive composition of this compound differs from the conductive compound in at least two matters.

1- The first thing: that the descriptive one does not relate to its general generality, which is very common or ambiguous, but rather that the epithet is required in terms of

77 See: Same source: 30

78 See: Same source: the page itself

79 Book: 1/72

80 Descriptive in the sense of listing the features defining a thing in terms of its specific task rather than that which is specified in the boundaries. See: Complex terminological units in a complex structure in Sibawayh Book: 31

81 See: Same source: 33

82 See: Same source: 34


Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.

reference identification, not the thumb, as is the case with the previous compound.

Therefore, we find the participle is a piece of information that belongs to a narrow conceptual circle, towards the object in the aforementioned example.

2- The second: that the designation with it is a systematic process by designating the conscript the head of the boat, and the participle designating the conceptual circle derived from it 83.

Third: the additional compound: towards: (the derivatives of the Yaa ءايلا and the waw واولا). The researcher believes that this type allocates the conceptual branch, and that what distinguishes it from others is its limitation to confirming the meaning of proportion, which is the central meaning of addition 84.

Fourth: The semi-attribution complex: towards (such as, definite and indefinite) and (an excuse for the occurrence of the matter). The researcher believes that this type is divided into two types:

What its root is a term, like: the first mentioned idiomatic compound, and what its root is a non-idiomatic phrase, like: the second mentioned idiomatic compound.

What the researcher concludes from following this type of idiomatic compounds is that it differs from the rest of the idiomatic compounds with a clear characteristic, which is that the descriptive in it approaches the descriptive of the sentences, and as long as this is the case, this type is located in an intermediate stage that lies between the nominative and the expressive whose characteristics are actually obtained from its likeness the idiom from which the speech is based


What is clear to us from the entirety of this careful analysis is that the specific function remained dominant over the complex terminological compounds, and that the analytical trend in these compounds increases as the compound grows and has complex elements. Therefore, the idiomatic verb in the context of the postalveolar sentence was the ultimate approach of the analytical work, while the singular terms and the simple terms were less fortunate in the analysis.

Because it tends to abstract the originally abstract plotters in an umbrella unit for their most important features.

Phonetic Transcription

After a closer look at the previous readings, it became clear to us that most of the readings were analytical and critical readings, in which the Arab reader did not neglect to mention some of the idiomatic problems that prevented controlling the symbols indicating the grammatical concepts.

However, what should be noted at the same time is that the Arab researcher did not intend to dismiss the centrality of Sibawayh terminology in our Arab culture, and what confirms this to us is that there is an independent reading of Dr. Issam Farouk that had the opportunity to reveal the most important reasons that led to the centralization of the terms of the book in Our Arab culture

83 See: Same source: 34_35

84 See: Same source: 35_36

85 See: Same source: 36_38


is ancient and modern, as well as the most important idiomatic principles that have been realized in those terms. However, this reading was a sectoral reading that specialized in phonemic terms and did not extend to others. Therefore, it represents an indispensable model in the context of revealing the terminological principles realized in some of the book's terms. This is because after applying the technical conditions of the scientific term to some of the phonological terms mentioned in the section on slurring, the researcher concluded that some of the book's phonetic terms were fulfilled by the following terminological principles 86:

1- The existence of the term denoting a specific concept within a large group of phonemic terms that are conceptually related. There is no doubt that this helps the soundness of the phonemic term and the clarity of its concept, by understanding its relationship to the general concept that underlies its shade, its relationship to the concepts and parallel terms that belong to this general concept, and distinguishing it from other similar phonemic terms.

2- His terminological definition shows the extent of: “His achievement in building a dictionary of definitions of the phonetic term 87. However, what should be mentioned is that Sibawayh did not mention a definition of the term outbreak, for example.

3- Conciseness in the structures of terminology.

4- Clarifying the concepts by means other than the definition, such as representation, explanation, and distinguishing between similar concepts with one of the distinguishing characteristics.

5- Many of Sibawayh's phoneme are monosyllable.

6- The accuracy of the nomenclature, this is evidenced by what the reader perceives of the existence of a relationship between the linguistic meaning of the term and its idiomatic concept.

Based on the above and what we conclude from some of the readings, we can say that the secret behind the stability of many of the book’s terminology to this day in terms of its technical connotation on the concept developed by Sibawayh is due to the characteristics that were distinguished by those terms that should be present in mature scientific terms, and they are:

Conciseness, ease and clarity, and the appropriateness of the words of the concepts that have been developed for them, and their departure from complexity and ambiguity 88.


These recent readings came-up with the following conclusions:

1- The Arab researcher's reading of book terminology was in three patterns: the comprehensive reading pattern, this pattern of reading tends towards the terms of the book in its entirety, the sectoral reading pattern, this pattern tends to follow the terms

86 See: Sibawayh's centrality in Arab culture: 255-264, 266

87 The power of Sibawayh’s views over the disagreements in the Arabic phonetics: 293, see: Sibawayh's centrality in Arab culture: 258

88 See: Reading in the term Sibawayh, Analysis and Criticism: 106_107, and see: The idea of the worker and its effect on constructing grammatical terms in Sibawayh: 148



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