Mondrian’s Style and Its Reflection in Interior Graphics Design
Layth Adil Abbood
Prof. Dr. Naim Abbas Hassan
University of Baghdad, College of Fine Arts, Iraq [email protected]
The style in art and design is formed through those methods used in organizing and distributing shapes and elements in the design space, and from it the designer derives his creative processes in arranging the parts within the visual space field, taking into account some of the steps that belong to a previously known formulation, or are the product of an artistic stage A particular style, and what it represents of individual or collective style according to a school or artistic direction. In addition to what was presented by some artistic trends, such as a graphic art style, that was followed in all design products, including the Piet Mondrian style, this style that still enjoys global popularity in its abstractions, spaces and colors, and it is an expressive representation of the organizational pattern in the interior spaces of buildings on the one hand, and in graphic products on the other.
Keywords: style, design, graphics, interior, space, Bauhaus, de Stael, abstraction, art, structure, function, aesthetics.
CHAPTER I 1- Research Problem
Contemporary graphic design has an important peculiarity that is summarized in its openness to all disciplines, which gives that specialization the possibility of stylistic and formal diversity in the selection and selection of the appropriate method of communicating ideas. Thus, the method is a starting point for distributing shapes and formulating elements within the visible space field.
The style represents the path that the designer follows according to an artistic school, or a philosophical or artistic direction, and this is what we see in the style of the international artist (Pet Mondrian). Which left a stylistic pattern in dealing with formality and transforming the real into an abstract, through which the followers of this method are inspired by the way of dealing with that geometric formal structure in the distribution of spaces and the division of formal space in a combination consistent with each other in the functional and aesthetic aspects From here, the two researchers find a solution to their research problem through the following question: What are the characteristics of Mondrian's method of formal transformation and its reflection in the global product?
2- Research Importance: It lies in the following aspects:
Defining and defining the concepts of style in design by the artist (Pet Mondrian) Al-Sand, to enrich the library of specialization in graphic design arts. With the creation of a knowledge base on how to renew the geometric abstract style in introducing design topics and their variations for products globally. And reaching results that benefit specialists in how to define industrial and commercial products and how to shift from fixed structures to structures that carry in their composition the characteristics of change and development to suit the requirements of the current and future era of the Mondrian method.
3- Research Purpose:
Discovering the characteristics of the Mondrian style and its reflection in the global commercial product.
4- Research Limits:
A- Thematic Limits: It lies in the study of Mondrian's geometric abstraction style and how it was functionally and aesthetically reflected in the interior designs around the world.
B- Time: 2020.
C- Place: Designs published on the Internet, on (Bauhaus and de Stael) websites.
The graphic achievements of the Mondrian abstract style implemented by one of the official international companies on the Internet, and as it owns spaces of design for interior spaces, which is (My Modern Met) company. It is specialized in interior design, graphic design and photography. According to the justifications, the researchers believe that it is important and convenient to the topic and objective of the research as follows:
- Accurate representation of the graphic achievements, in which the diversity of expression methods lies.
- The peculiarity that distinguishes it in the creative and aesthetic handling of the space of the horizontal and vertical determinants, which possesses organization, arrangement and avoidance of randomness, and which represents the structural pattern of the Mondrian style
- It is characterized by an aesthetic expression in it with its functional importance that suits the needs of individuals in society for it, as it represents a visual comfort and links of communication of aesthetic properties.
- It has formal and artistic connotations from the global reality in line with the nature of designs that possess various stylistic variables, and take focus on the subject through the international Mondrian style according to a contemporary view.
- It was accomplished in advanced and modern technical output formats, which makes it distinctive, attractive, and exciting for the recipient
- It is considered to have an impactful ability for its scopes and spaces that enhance its functional and semantical aspect, as well as, direct and indirect representation of its design ideas in innovative ways.
5- Terminology Style:
(The method of writing, or the method of composition, or the method of choosing and composing words to express meanings in order to clarify and influence). (Ahmed, 1939, P. 39).
A type of artistic style, which differs from some other types in that it includes a repetitive set or complex of features in art, which can be repeated and diversified into many different products, (Thomas, 1973, p. 99).
It is the end that justifies the means, which is the aesthetic delivery and organization of the individual skill and the definition of the meaning of the aesthetic experience, (Nathan, 1987, p.
The way through which the artwork can be accessed through sensory elements, whether visual or auditory, such as color, line, mass, surface, shadow and light (Jerome, 1974, p. 355).
It is the artistic style that includes a different method of expression and implementation from other styles and is characterized with its identity and formal privacy.
FIRST TOPIC: THE NATURE OF THE STYLE IN THE ABSTRACT SCHOOL Style as a Concept
The word “style” in Arabic refers to the extended road, and in various European languages, to the Latin word (stylus), which means the pointed iron rod that the ancients used to write with on tarpaulin boards. When used in a context related to a human behavior, it refers to the specific divisions that characterize this behavior with a character that gives it its own identity. In Lisan al-Arab Dictionary, the line from the palm is said to be a style, and every extended path is a style, and the artistic style is said to have taken so-and-so in methods of saying: i.e., Types of It, (Ibn Manzur, 1955, p. 23).
Style is an old term in the language and occupied a wide space in various aspects of life and was widely used in the field of arts. It was mentioned idiomatically in the Introduction of Ibn Khaldun, about the method in which the structures are woven through, or the mold in which they are poured”, (Ibn Khaldun, 1960, p. 107). While the word "Style" was used "to denote the machine by which writing is done, and it became a term meaning, the way of
writing", (British, 2003). The term style has become widely used in various fields of life based on the plurality of its concepts. As Pierre-Noël Giraud explains, “It has a floating concept, it is a simple face of the uttered at times, and it is a conscious art of the writer’s arts at other times. It is an expression of the nature of man, and therefore it always transcends the limits to which it is closed”, (Pierre-Noël Giraud, 1994, p. 47). The term “style” was used to distinguish one method from another, such as the writer’s style, the style of the age, or the style of the artist, and this widening of use made it difficult to define it by definition, as it refers to the nature of man himself as “the style of the saying that results from the writer’s choice of means of expressions, these means are determined by the nature of the person who is speaking, or the writer himself”, (Fadl, 1998, p. 103). It is “the basis of revealing the pattern of thinking of its owner”, (Al-Masdi, 2002, pg. 64), which leads to saying that each style is an
“image specific to its owner,” meaning that it is a form that denotes the artist and carries his attributes as an indication of the creator’s artistic works, and these works become an image that indicates Its link to that artist and the artwork becomes “a way of showing his thinking and how he looks at things and interprets them”, (Al-Masadi, 2002, p. 66). Which brings us back to the definition of the French school of style as “the study of the way of expressing thought through language” (Al-Masadi, 2002, p. 67). The expression of thought means precisely the use of vocabulary and grammatical rhetorical structures in a complete comprehensive way in order to achieve distinction and gain creativity, “as style is considered possible in the conscious test of the tools of expression” (Fadl, 1998, p. 117). Which expresses the artist’s vision and orientations in constructing his vocabulary in a new way by finding distinct features to excite the recipient and draw his attention to the artistic work. “The distinguished style is closely related to his ideas, as it involves his ambitions aimed at influencing social awareness in a certain way” (Pierre-Noël Giraud, 1994, p. 11). It is achieved by the formation with which the constituent elements of the work are connected as a graphic achievement in an interior space.
These elements that represent functions capable of expressing within the artistic achievement in a manner consistent with simple or complex unfamiliar ideas, their value comes through the final product of the artistic achievement that carries them and then the formation of its distinguished style which "is the special way of selecting and organizing the elements of art" (Thomas, 1973, p. 180). Through the intentional selection of artistic elements and their employment from their general existence to their private existence, based mainly on several influential factors governed by experience, subjective experience and the nature of the mutual relationship with the social environment. “The artist is a person who thinks through a medium, and this medium includes certain sensory elements” (Jerome, 1974, p. 147). Here it can be concluded that the style in the design is a foundation based on a certain combination of elements in which the formal organization superficially overlaps and carries internal meanings that give the design a unique and diagnosable privacy.
Creative artistic practice, as a human activity, is often characterized by certain characteristics, specific qualities, and distinctive stamps that define its identity. Thus, when the word (style) is added to a specific artistic activity, or to a particular artist, it is meant by the creative artistic characteristics of this activity (represented by a certain design), which in the end, constitutes the identity of the designer (his own style) as well as the identity of the design and its various affiliations. Because design in the end is a “pick up of information", and this design does not
consist of color points or familiar shapes with specific meanings only” (Hussain, 2008, pg.
198), it is rather, a composition in a visual organization composed of interacting visual units that derive its strength from a certain pattern to form.
In the design of interior forms with their various functional styles, the style, whether it is different from the familiar reality or in conformity with it, the field of operation of the style is in the technical elements from which that design is formed inside and not in the origin of the general concept of design art. As the designer expresses his distinctive style through the use of technical units to form the elements in a specific space by focusing on the optimal use in dealing with the subject and elements and the type of functional and aesthetic goal and reading the desires of the recipient or user of that internal space within the operation of the style and its appropriateness with the meaning of the design elements that constitute of which topic.
We conclude from the above that the style is inevitable and falls from a realistic vocabulary organized by the designer as a formal treatment in which the creative influence coincides with the way of dealing with the elements in the design space, to show a single output formulation and may be a new formulation of a previous abstract vision.
Provided that this new formal formulation possesses the characteristics of modernity and defines the characteristics of style with three basic elements (clarity, strength, and aesthetics), (Al- Shayeb, 1993, p. 255). The creative design artwork that is characterized by clarity, strength and beauty and is subject to an authentic experience and sincere feelings of expression by the designer’s personality, which is full of experience in employing and organizing the elements of the artwork on new intellectual foundations necessarily leads to the crystallization of a new distinct style that earns the designer his privacy that distinguishes him from other designers at the level The artistic and creative movement of graphic art.
Second: Stylistic Diversity: Stylistic diversity comes through the experiences of designers, but rather art in general, and through the launch of differentiation and singularity in dealing with the manifestations of shapes, no matter how diverse their characteristics, and that this diversity occurs because of the idea of intellectual competition in development and the search for new and out of the unfamiliar and unknown, and these are the stimuli Basic stylistic diversity.
The visual arts had the property of preserving the methods of showing them from the end of the Golden Renaissance in Italy in Florence city, until the popularity of the realistic trend in Paris, and this defines a new type of aesthetic stylistic discourse that was imposed within the mechanisms of its manifestation by reduction in certain places and replacement in photography by finding other places out of the visual surface, as "color seemed more effective by using it to fill certain areas of the painting for the purpose of highlighting an expressive side" (Al- Shayeb, 1993, p. 254). So, to emphasize the stylistic diversity in art and design, we mention what was discussed in the study (Jamil Abd Ramah) through a group of main methods used by the designers, influenced by some schools and artistic methods in Europe, and those methods were built on their foundations, which are as follows: (Ramah, 2014, pages 71- 90). New-Classicism, Romantic Impressionism, Fauvism, Realism, Cubism, Futurisms, Dadaism, Surrealism Expressive, Symbolic Art, Abstract Art, Formalisms, Socialist Realism, Pop Art, Tadeush Style,
Formal Merging Style. Both researchers will discuss the most important methods concerned with the emergence of Mondrian's Style, which are as follows:
1- Expressive: German Expressionism arose for the first time and was known as (The Bridge).
It initially included four young artists. The group drew its orientations from post- impressionism, Negro and Pacific art, as well as from the old German woodcarvings. The founders of the movement resorted to using colors that combine and those used by the savages. They were brought together by one main goal, to put on the painting their feelings, as it “comes from an inner emotion that overflows and takes-over the painting, then overflows from within the painting and pours out into the viewer’s heart” (Neumayer, 1990, p. 173).
2- Symbolic Art: The symbolic school emerged as a reaction against the natural movement in art, and movements that simulate physical reality and everyday events at first. It does not seek to imitate visible objects and subjects, but rather seeks in it the impression, excessive sensation and feeling that reflects awareness of external facts.
3- Abstract Art: The geometric analysis of objects and (disposal, abstraction, and liberation from nature, (Reed, 1994, p. 98), was a natural precursor to the abstract movement, for the abstracts were starting with nature and then developing it little by little to remove the accidental appearance. (Non-Subjectivity), which in turn, founded the school that emerged in Germany under the name (Bauhaus), which attempted to objectively adapt natural materials to serve humankind and ended up creating an expressive abstract art, (Heath, 1988, p. 5).
4- Pop Art: This style began and emerged in the United States of America, where it did not witness a popularity of an art like that witnessed by popular art (pop), and because of the Second World War it led to the migration of a large number of European artists to the United States, and it was the birth of a new art, as this art separated from the experiences of the previous schools, moving away from the artistic value and familiar theories, in parallel with pop music (Ramah, 2014, pg. 30).
5- Tadeush Style: (Tadeusz Gronowski, 1894-1990) is the architect who became one of the most famous poster artists in Poland (after discovering a new style in poster design that was one of his most important pillars of pairing plastic drawing and architectural engineering drawing) in terms of forms of lines and angles and their interactions as well as his influence on the school Cubism and Post-Cubism.
6- Formal Merging: This method addressed many of the problems that designers may suffer in expressing the idea, as it combines more than one form or design unit to be the result of expressing a set of ideas in a reduced and integrative manner. Because of its reduction in
“forms that mimic nature to the fullest extent and transforms many forms after their abstraction into symbolic and significant values, and the artist is classified as adapting this abstract form to the essence of design arts, which is their function” (Ramah, 2014, pg. 40).
THE SECOND TOPIC: GRAPHIC DESIGN WORK IN THE INTERIOR SPACE
What graphic design represents from an artistic and creative field that extended to become in all the activities of daily life and has an important impact in the statement of product information and identity, and falls within the scope of relational exchange in decorating and beautifying some walls and interior spaces of homes and government institutions (formal and informal) such as technical and commercial institutions, and that His presence in those spaces gave him the advantage of aesthetic and structural functionalism, and the psychological comfort that it reflects on the recipient (the viewer and the user), taking into account the style from which the graphic design proceeds to be compatible with the environment and the capacitive space.
First: Graphic Design Structure
The concept of structure stems from a principle or a system of perceived inner relations according to the absolute priority of the whole with the parts, and it is also a mental conception that is closer to abstraction than to certainty. The structure represents a system of relationships that includes special rules as a system or system as it differs from its component elements and includes three properties (comprehensiveness, transformation, and self-control), (Garaudy, 1983, p. 8). In the design, they are expressive structures, an intellectual and technical construction of elements and foundations according to modern visions of an integrated organization, governed by well-studied and carefully calculated relationships, and no separate element can act without its harmony and consistency with the rest of the elements of the structure and elements that represent the aesthetics of the elements as the elements of the function. We appreciate, and beauty here is an experience in which we accept the subject's subjects for their own sake, (Santiana, 1985, p. 70). The aesthetic structure is the phenotypical characteristics of the forms,
“It is a structural process of design elements that depends on the necessity of providing construction and organization factors in the form to achieve a utilitarian performance value in the graphic achievement” (Al-Dulaimi, 2004, page 37). The concept of structure in art and design in particular, according to the researcher’s vision, is based on two aspects:
A- Stylistic Aspect:
The structure is then a system and an order, here, it means the stereo typicality and the designer’s continuous re-units and stylistic elements so that “describing a work of art as mechanical structural means that it lacks imagination and innovation and does not have thinking and reduces its value”, (Younes, 1998, p. 34).
The concept of structure, functionally and aesthetically, on the other hand, is linked to imitation, i.e., re-production of themes and elements that were produced before, i.e., imitation “is not part of artistic creativity in anything, considering creativity a distinct state of human activity that results in a new production characterized by novelty, originality and wit” (Abdul Hamid, 1987, Page 46). We may find this in the mosaic arts of Islamic art.
B- The Visual Aspect:
This means that the structure here is the use of certain formal units such as lines, circles, curves and spaces to highlight a certain aspect in the artwork or emphasize it for aesthetic or formative purposes. “It is not required in the repetition of the structure that the unit (the repeated form) be moderate, but rather the designer in front of the various options in making it inverted or inverted. Or reciprocal, taking into account accuracy in the division and order in work” (Hamouda, 2001, p. 65). That is, the unity that has been repeated should be consistent with the structure of the graphic artwork and with its expressive formulation in a manner that does not contradict the principles of unity and diversity in it, or lead it to be a flat work that tends to monotony and rigidity of form.
The layout of the structure is among the most important principles of organizing the elements in the composition of the artwork, and it is linked to the rhythm through which the visual elements are emphasized in that work to form the unity of the work on the condition that it is not repetitive.
A distinction can be made here between the complete repetition that occurs in the repetition of shapes on roofs, walls, and decorative shapes in architecture. And that the structure's link to repetition represents an organizational relational formulation, as incomplete repetition is of two types: alternating repetition and variable repetition.
Alternating repetition means the succession of units irregularly, as happens, for example, in the repetition of musical themes. As for the variable repetition, it occurs by “repetition of the structural elements to form the unity in the visual formation, with changes in some of them to break the monotony, such as the repetition of arches in an architectural facade with the introduction of a change in their sizes”, (Al-Obaidi, 1997, p. 63). That is, the concept of repetition according to the structure here does not contradict the concept of unity and diversity, but rather shares with it many characteristics to form the structure of the artwork as a system that depends on the arrangement and clarification of its visible features, and gives a sense of stability and interdependence of its parts. This is evident from the last work of the artist (Piet Mondrian).
Second: Design Output in Interior Spaces
The connection of the design process with daily life is one of the elements of intellectual and cultural exchange between humans, as well as design in its diversity is subject to the creative aspect that contributes to the promotion of commercial goods, whether it is tasteful or utilitarian, and what it involves as a design act through renewed creative thought. Which opened the way for the achievement in re-design based on the scientific method of analysis, so the elements of the re-design varied to the role of composition in organizing the elements, (Hassan, 2018, p. 253).
Graphic design plays other roles in deliberative work in accordance with visual propositions in its deliberative texts, as it has taken an approach to it and provided ways to find communicative
talkative methods. Thus, pragmatics is based on three concepts based on its existence, including the deliberative reading of all discourses (Muhammad, 2017, page 4):
A- The concept of action: The concept of action in pragmatics goes beyond the concept of representing the world and producing formats indicative of meanings, to the point of executing an act and exercising influence through the use of visual language. The actual visual language, whose actual significance is linked to the situation or context, and this applies to graphic design, which plays an active role in promoting the idea in its communicative and semantic framework.
B- The concept of context: It means the actual position for employing structures and forms, which in turn includes everything we need to understand and evaluate what is accomplished, or what is designed within the framework of the circulation of visual, visual and written courses (texts).
C- The concept of competence: The concept of competence is a pragmatic accreditation signal for the use of visual language in the context, or it is the outcome of projecting the axis of the verb onto the axis of the context. Accordingly, the competence and features of the recipients are determined as a graphic logic.
Through these three concepts, graphic work can be deliberative in line with the methods of employment in interior spaces as methods, and the fact that interior design has commonalities with graphic design through the use of the deliberative aspect of visual forms and formats, we find it - interior design - uses the methods of graphic design as it gives a basis for aesthetic values In the cladding and finishing materials (finishing).
The mechanisms of dealing between the directorial vision and the topographical elements to reach general common features that determine the identity of the works in the composed internal space, which are identified as follows:
1- Modernity of form: in the sense of modernization, and it is one of the important things that the maker of the (creative) artwork seeks to distinguish from others in his transfer of intellectual contents first and to embody the meaning in a non-typical manner prevalent in circulation secondly, in the sense of reconsidering the arrangement of expressive elements in a new and lively way.
2- The originality of the intellectual content: This particularity occupies an important rank in determining the topographical works, as it is a reference to the distinguished artwork and its maker who seeks to acquire the character of creativity, and thus it applies to both the graphic and interior designer who seek to excel through modern renewal in which they find expressive levels of form, “which expresses itself by creating functionally and aesthetically appropriate artistic images”, (Sheikh, 2003, p. 15). Along with semantic values charged with deep meanings that are reflected in the intellectual content of the achievement, as ideas and meanings converge through the size and movement of the image and its components and its relationship to the text and the capacitive space to express the designer’s point of view and record his impressions about any issue or topic without
restriction or condition. "The graphic artwork, with its subtle meaning, refers to a particular subject that expresses a spiritual reality on the other hand" (Stollins, 1981, p.
From here stems the vision of graphic design in its work within the interior design space between the modernity of the design and its originality to deepen the ideas and its premises in the construction and installation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional forms in order to achieve a modernist and extrinsic synthesis with aesthetic values commensurate with the place and its nature and harmonize with the synthesis of the view and the aesthetic view that is described as the comprehensive system as a starting point for pluralism jobs.
Results of the synthesis processes in graphic design in terms of organizational and associative relationships, stem from the processes of good creation, compatibility and harmony, and this is what the recipient (user) always senses, and it is mostly the goal of the design, and the attempt that the designer wants lies in the mechanisms of receiving and the resulting intellectual discourse. Therefore, the universal plurality and the unifying diversity, according to the theories of aesthetic attraction.
We can also define mechanisms for receiving through the aesthetic formation of images and forms in terms of persuasion and the process of communication and communication between the stylistic intellectual communication episodes in those internal spaces and through the foundations on which the discourse maker relies, which are types of them (Said, 1999, p. 17):
- Contributing Integration: In which the recipient participates with the creative and aesthetic message.
- Dazzling integration: in which the recipient feels admiration and the accumulation of aesthetic integration takes place.
- Emotional integration: a feeling that goes beyond admiration and extends to influence the behavior of the recipient.
- Purifying integration: in which the recipient's thought rises and the aesthetic and moral aspect of the recipient is intertwined.
- Paradoxical integration: In this type of mechanism, what is known as shock and fascination can occur in the world of aesthetic creativity, which achieves an unforgettable memory.
We conclude from the foregoing that the comprehensive design and the plurality of value diversity and the formal and formal synthesis result in organizational processes that are interlinked with the mechanisms of receiving in the integration that generates from the discourse as an aesthetic quality that follows the functional character in achieving goals and in the integration of roles between graphic design and interior spaces of design achievements.
THIRD: THE FUNCTIONAL AND AESTHETIC DIMENSIONS OF THE MONDRIAN STYLE
1- Style and Aesthetics
The visual language is the most effective means of communication in intellectual and sensory communication, especially in art and literature, as the artwork - even if it contains multiple elements - is in the end only in the visual language, and therefore beauty philosophers emphasize that there is no separation between language and the philosophy of beauty, because they are not different. Linguistics is the one who takes expression as its subject, and this expression is based on the undeniable capabilities of language, and this convergence between language and aesthetics as a visual language, and (Ahmad Al-Shayeb) found it in deconstructing the linguistic and visual phenomenon into four elements (emotion, thought, imagination, style). He believed that style is concerned with the writer himself, and for this he defined literature as (the speech that expresses the mind and emotion), and these two aspects represent the body of the aesthetic composition, meaning that beauty as a mixture between the idea, the image and the style of expression, and the task of the designer (artist) is the aesthetic as determined by the idea that he intends to convey. The recipient has a specific language within the framework of style, so he determines the way he uses to express the artistic beauty. Accordingly, the method is divided into (Fadl, 1998, p. 124):
- Direct Style: It is represented by the dialogue that the character utters and expresses in a form, text, and shapes in the design.
- Indirect Style: It is represented by the narration in which the designer deliberately builds what happened or what goes on in the mind of the recipient, so it is necessary to change the forms and not to use emotional signs and symbols.
- The Free Indirect Style: mediates the previous two methods, as it is indirect as it does not represent a pure dialogue or a personal talk about itself, and it is free because it belongs to the direct method by including a degree of inner soliloquy and the technique of the stream of consciousness, and it is part of the indirect method by including a change in pronouns And times, but at the same time it does not use the vocabulary and complex forms, and includes the expressive and influential elements that give the direct style its privacy from the formulations of symbols, signs, and others.
Thus, because the style indicates the characteristic of beauty in general, and the determinants of beauty are relative, and this was reflected in the style at every temporal stage. The classical style, realistic in all its forms, impressionistic in all kinds, romantic, cubist, surreal, symbolic and expressive, all of these styles appeared in succession by artists within transformations and circumstances that surrounded the production and achievement. Intellectual what the society aspires to development and transformation. It was on the cultural and philosophical levels in dealing with literary and artistic works, and under certain reasons, including (turning against the past, rejecting reality, seeking change, or discarding what is familiar and searching for new, modern and contemporary), (Sparke, 2018, p. 91).
What we know today about graphic design was found thanks to the founders of the Bauhaus School (Herbert Bayer, László Moholy-Nagy, and Ellestiski) who invented new techniques and machines for the production of designs. Design and architecture. Many critics consider Piet Mondrian, born in 1872, to be the father of graphic and abstract design in particular, although he was a plastic artist, but his use of grids in his paintings that he called (compositions) was the first spark for the emergence of the so-called (grids system) (in the field of advertising), (Al-Arabi, 2018, page 20).
2- Function and Aesthetics regarding Mondrian
The function of the lines that Mondrian adopted and established within the de Sel group is the outcome of intellectual activity and artistic development and the transition from realistic arts to abstract arts, as well as these can be the first steps to establish abstract art, which derives its strength from Cubism, provided that the new art preserves its characteristics in Mostly it is aesthetic based on arrangement, distribution and coordination to reach, according to the group’s opinion, creative integration as a system consisting of lines and spaces of different sizes and with different color characteristics, (Thomasson, 1970, p. 40).
The stages of the development of drawing and the transformation of design for Mondrian were characterized by a formal sequence and a gradual movement that is evident through his works and artistic productions, and on this basis the Eli Still Group and the Bauhaus School adopted that career orientation in architecture and painting (Stevens, 2006, p. 45). Which gave it a stylistic advantage that was later recorded in the Mondrian style, which emanates from those black lines in the form of a network of colored spaces (black, red, blue, yellow). Mostly for the atmosphere of Europe, and this is what the artist Mondrian expressed: that the green color is abundant and familiar, and that other colors are more powerful and beautiful, (Thomasson, 1970, p. 6).
Mondrian also announces those lines and shapes that represent the existing system in life, which gives a formal diversity contained in the red, blue and black frame, as a process of consistency and an example that this employment stems from the role of colors and their aesthetic reflection, and this may be applied to what we perceive and what has been achieved by this method in various fields; Such as: fashion and other clothing, tools and wall coverings, but extended to include indoor and outdoor structures, (Stevens, 2006, p. 45). In this way, the style is the formula that the artist created and settled on in shaping his artistic production to achieve a specific goal of it that carries with it certain characteristics that define the characteristics and characteristics of this style that distinguish it from any other artistic style (Harbi, 2014, pg. 19) and this is what we see in the style of The De Stijl community and Mondrian's style in particular, artistic styles tend to continually tend to resemble and converge to compose similar contexts in their general formulations in each era.
“Mondrian” was a believer that abstraction is the only way to approach the truth and return to the origins and beginnings. However, this cannot be achieved unless the painter possesses a high degree of awareness and intuition that enables him to reach the highest
levels of rhythm and harmony. To this day, the paintings of the Dutch artist are still displayed in major international museums, (Mondrian, 2015, Resource: Internet page).
Therefore, we find the works that Mondrian was well-distinguished through, via a group of abstract ideas that launched to universalism, on which this aesthetic formal system was based. It was unique through two important ideas in the emergence of this style, which are (Al-Kawaz, 2018, pg. 64):
- Distinguishing between expression and connotation.
- The difference in approaching the topics.
We notice through Mondrian's works the turning points from the abstraction combined with the readable realism to the pure abstraction, and here it is left to the interpretation and explanation of the topics through the mystical view that Mondrian enjoys.
Analysis of the Models for the Application of the Mondrian Style in Interior Design Model (1), see Image (1)
A- Description: An interior space designed according to the Mondrian style as a space treatment for a living room of 5 square meters of space, containing a set of furniture, a sitting area, a bench as a reading table, chairs and round-tables, and some shelves fixed on the walls.
1- Works of Design Style
The principle of expressive style was adopted, which stems from a formal simulation associated with the concepts of the artistic creative process and the imaginary formal formation. With horizontal delimiters
and finished with vertical delimiters in an analog visual line and layout. It is noticeable that clarity, strength and beauty focused their stylistic qualities on those tools that the designer came with to give a sense of renewal and change, and based on each part of those color and formal pieces commensurate with what that design does of vocabulary and effective tools that were compatible in a visual attraction that is a work It is environmentally friendly and constitutes an enjoyable space through a set of furniture that is distributed harmoniously based on the compatibility of the design idea and the unification of its elements from the Mondrian style as a starting point and an engineering technical base through which color (spots) are distributed represented by black, blue and yellow. It is highlighted with a red attraction point with white floors within rectangular and square spaces in which white and yellow lines extend to achieve its structural design dimension, as this comes according to the stylistic aspect that includes the plastic aspect in diversity, harmony, compatibility, contrast, strength and strangeness of design.
Taking into consideration what the total space was designed as a sum of associative parts with formal and color relations as if they were of one unified gender in which the functional dimension is intertwined with the aesthetic dimension.
These stylistic features are also related to the high contrast achieved by the contrast of yellow, blue, white and black colors with the presence of treatments for the walls that came with strength and solidity in dealing with them, such as those of the bench (table) in black with the differentiation of the design between spaces and this appears through the process of perceiving (the recipient) The user of this space, its colors and the attractiveness achieved by the formal harmony of colors.
2- The Deliberativeness of The Visual Discourse and The Mechanisms of Output
The pragmatic realization was adopted in a visual discourse on which the design was based through those virtual structures that are visual formats that support meanings and are in accordance with the contexts of formal circulation, not only Mondrian's style, but also the pragmatic power of the high efficiency generated by those color spaces and their functional aesthetic that reflects the values of abstract geometric colors in a propriate way that matches the modern style. While the output mechanisms came through the novelty of the form, its originality and the effectiveness of the content, which is due to the method of integrating it between De Stael and the Bauhaus School in dealing with the arrangement of spaces, and this leads us to the fact that the output process came according to the well-known circulation process of the Mondrian style in all commercial products and pieces of furniture in interior design This gives a new meaning, which is how to integrate these design functions within an internal environment, and the processes of employing characteristics and features that were not approved before, as the commercial act turns into a design that visually communicates with the output processes as a formative design aspect with meanings and connotations that are compatible with the engineering dimensions in the work of space reservation.
3- Characteristics of Topographical Formation Inner Space Composition
The aesthetic formations of the interior space, according to the characteristics of the topographical formation, came to the contributory merger that gives paths to the aesthetic composition and moves to the dazzling merger, which is harmonious between the recipient and the design, as well as the emotional integration that stems from the strength of the design and its reflection in the user’s state of awareness of the formal organization in relationships As the formation of the generation of structures present with the power of qualities from the part with the whole as a case to show the meaning and its impactful connotations, and it is inferred from the power of meanings that contribute to the manifestation of forms among themselves within an interrelationship that stems from the unity of stylistic characteristics with direct qualities, Which has a stylistic specificity depending on the contrast ratios in the indirect, free style, and this shows the effectiveness of the visual formal activity in the process of processing shapes, lines and spatial designs, which occupied the space and were subjugated under the themes of formal characteristics, in addition to the power of that design being a harmonious state that the user senses, realizes, harmonizes and coexists with.
Model (2), See Image (2)
A- Description: An interior space designed according to the Mondrian style. It is a space of an open hall and kitchen as a rectangular space, with 3 meters wide and 8 meters long regarding dimensions, containing a fixed place as a table in the kitchen wall, a place to sit, a bench as a movable dining table, circular chairs and some fixed shelves on the walls in the form of a library.
1- Works of Design Style
What the design achieves as actual methods in that interior space that
stems from the processes of the expressive style, which is characterized as carrying a stylistic engineering simulation of Mondrian partially and completely, and that the process of formal organization that generates from those spaces as horizontal (walls, floors and all levels) and vertical (walls, columns and longitudinal partitions It results in formal spaces between the square and the rectangle, horizontal and vertical, with lines extending to represent the unity of formal coordination as a ring of investments from the floors to the walls and ending with the ceilings. Among them, they have stylistic qualities that achieve clarity, strength of lines, their sobriety, their borders, and the contrast of their spaces with neighboring spaces, including what reflects the aesthetic qualities of the frequency of color values in them, which are dominated by yellow and blue with white and light pink (ocher colors) for public spaces, and that the shape that fits With what came from the formal determinants and their suitability as vocabulary and graphic elements with a valuable correlation of colors.
The design work came in accordance with a creative artistic vision in treating the interior environment as a living place within a creative space in which the formal and color values coincided, which depend on the design structures stylistically for the graphic workplace, as it requires accuracy of details and their distribution in a manner that suits the result of the lines extending across the spaces in a way. Harmonious as if it is a three-dimensional plastic painting, and this enhances the plastic aspect in achieving the modernity of the creative aesthetic dimension, with the relationships that result in a formal compatibility that enhances the functional dimension of the design.
The design works were designed according to a unity that extends to the group of patterns in Mondrian designs, which deepens its geometrical aspect in abstraction and consistency within the characteristics of the aesthetic formations of stylistic expression.
2- The Deliberativeness of The Visual Discourse and The Mechanisms of Output
The pragmatics of the visual discourse was distinguished through multiple formats that correspond and agree with those connotations and meanings that express the pragmatics of the visual discourse in its structural dimensions, in addition to another aspect of the objective context of communication between the user and the design within the space due to the modernity of the
form and its content of output mechanisms, which are characterized by originality, identity and a statement of the formal content. and chromatic and contribute to the harmonic events between the partial and the total, and that these connotations and meanings stem from the apparent characteristics of the visual patterns in lines extended in one format and aim to deepen the geometric form of (Piet Mondrian).
3- Characteristics of Topographical Formation Inner Space Composition
The characteristics of the internal formation appeared according to the contributory integration that is achieved by the basic factors of reality in which the design and the integration achievers share the fascination with what is the case in which the content of the style corresponds and emanates from it an emotional hesitation among the recipient who uses the space and this is what brings us functional and aesthetic dimensions to some paradoxes that I was born here, as the primary colors. This design and what is related to the strength of interdependence and the strength of meanings as a case of descriptive in formal formations that can be considered rare forms, deepen the interdependence and have internal elements to organize the design, as well as the ways to derive the free indirect style from what Mondrian's style represents from basic spaces in the use of the yellow color that takes a representative dimension The figure is led by a total of factors and characteristics that define and frame the spatial organization at the expense of a graphic composition of the interior space.
Model (3), See Image (3)
A- Description: A space containing a group of countertops such as kitchen furniture, and a staircase to the upper floor, consisting of an area of 2.5 meters in width and 3 meters in length. It also contains dividers and barriers between the main space and the kitchen space.
1- Works of Design Style
This design is based on the principle of expressive style as a starting point for a formal simulation associated with the concepts of the artistic creative process and the formal formation, as it came according to the style
and its visual qualities in the formation of spaces and small lines from what was taken in the main space through its organizational dimension, which bears clarity, strength and beauty based on the graphic design mechanism within those spaces in the form of color spaces that started with horizontal determinants and ended with vertical determinants in an analog visual line and format, and we note that clarity, strength and beauty focused their stylistic qualities on those tools that the design came with to give inspiration and a sense of renewal and change. In each of its parts, it is based on the color and formal pieces in proportion to the vocabulary and effective tools provided by that design that reflect the compatibility in a visual attraction that is an environmental work and an enjoyable spatial formation of a group of regular furniture in a pattern on the walls in black, which is harmoniously distributed based on the idea of design and
unification between its elements of the Mondrian style fits as a starting point and an abstract engineering technical base through which the color spaces are distributed in black, blue and yellow, and in it attracts in blue, yellow and black with white floors within rectangular and square spaces where white and yellow lines extend to achieve its structural design dimension.
This comes in accordance with the stylistic aspect, which includes the plastic aspect in diversity, harmony, compatibility, contrast, strength and strangeness of design. Taking into consideration what the total space was designed as a sum of associative parts with formal and color relations as if they were of one unified gender in which the functional dimension is intertwined with the aesthetic dimension.
These stylistic features are also related to the high contrast achieved by the contrast of yellow, blue, white and black colors with the presence of treatments for the walls that came with strength and solidity in dealing with them, such as those areas that carry the cook and the grilling oven in black, with the variety and versatility of the spaces between the spaces. This appears through the process of realizing the user of this space, its colors, and the attractiveness, which is achieved by the formal harmony of colors.
2- The Deliberativeness of The Visual Discourse and The Mechanisms of Output
The pragmatics of the visual discourse was distinguished through multiple formats that correspond and agree with those connotations and meanings that express the pragmatics of the visual discourse in its structural dimensions, in addition to another aspect of the objective context of communication between the user and the design within the space due to the modernity of the form and its content of output mechanisms, which are characterized by originality, identity and a statement of the formal content. and chromatic and contribute to harmonic events between partial and total, and that these connotations and meanings stem from the apparent characteristics of visual patterns in lines extended in one format and aims to deepen the geometric form of (Piet Mondrian).
3- Characteristics of Topographical Formation Inner Space Composition
The characteristics of the internal formation varied according to the contributory integration that is achieved by the basic factors of reality in which the design of a graphic space participates with the achievers of integration and fascination, with what is the case in which the content of the style corresponds, and from it emanates emotional frequencies in the recipient, i.e. the user of the space, and this is what achieves us Functional and aesthetic dimensions to some of the paradoxes that were born here, as primary colors. This design and what is related to the strength of interdependence and the strength of meanings as a case of descriptive in formal formations that can be considered rare forms, deepening the interdependence, so it has internal elements to organize the design, as well as the ways to derive the free indirect style from what Mondrian’s style represents from basic spaces in the use of the yellow color that takes a representative dimension The figure is led by a total of factors and characteristics that define and frame the spatial organization at the expense of a graphic composition of the interior space.
The output process came in accordance with the well-known circulation process of the Mondrian style in all commercial products and furniture in interior design, and this gives a new meaning,
which is how to integrate these design works within an internal environment, and the processes of employing characteristics and features that were not approved before, as the verb turns into a design that communicates visually With the output processes as a formative design aspect with meanings and connotations that are compatible with the geometric dimensions in the work of space reservation, as the formation of the generation of structures present with the strength of the qualities of the part with the whole as a case to show the meaning and its impactful connotations and inferred from the power of meanings that contribute to the manifestation of forms among themselves within an interdependence stems from unity Stylistic characteristics with direct qualities, and it has a stylistic specificity depending on the contrast ratios in the free indirect style, and this shows the effectiveness of the visible formal activity.
RESULTS – CONCLUSIONS – RECOMMENDATIONS First: Results and Discussion:
Through what was mentioned in the analysis of the models, and to achieve the goal of the research, the following results were found:
1- The act of expressive style was achieved by simulating geometric shapes and their formal synthesis with what Mondrian's method brought about the interconnection of abstract shapes and in all models of analysis.
2- The visual qualities fall from the clarity of the shapes and their high contrasts according to the accuracy, agility and harmonious distribution, in which the formative and formative properties are strongly intertwined as they exchange roles in the points of attraction, which reflects a state of relative beauty to an almost level of perfection.
3- The formal works were adopted according to a systematic and engineering environment consistent with the user, an orderly system in which the design leads through the lines towards stability, luxury and strength and enhances its functional dimension, as it is based on a spatial distribution of the space.
4- The adoption of the design structure based on the stylistic aspect between the part and the whole within the scope of the Mondrian style showed an appropriate use, as it realizes the space as a unified whole and with harmonious patterns, and carries in its formations a stylistic pattern as a plastic aspect with its aesthetic dimensions, and this is evident in the paths of lines and spaces with colors (blue, yellow and black).
5- Focusing on the pragmatics of shapes as a visual discourse based in its treatment on the values of colors as interconnected formats and have multiple meanings in achieving the contexts of spatial formations between walls and ceilings as vertical and horizontal determinants overlapping parts, and this indicates the equivalence of the graphic design to the design style and style.
6- The output mechanisms came to deal with the style according to a look towards the modernity of the form in line with the design layout of the interior spaces in all models,
which reflects a state of originality of the content of rectangular shapes and their combinations in systems, organization and arrangement comfortable for the eye and perception.
7- The main interest in the general composition was achieved to obtain the aesthetic of formal coordination, spatial distribution, and the correlation of color and formal values through the contributory, dazzling and emotional integration, which achieves the role and goal desired by the design and in all models
8- Model (3) was distinguished by the paradoxical integration of the density of spatial values and the adoption of black spaces as a primary function of the kitchen, with what we find in the main hall, the living room with a multiplicity of colors and shapes between squares, rectangles and circles.
9- The characteristics of the graphic formation were achieved through the strength of the interconnection between the parts as spaces and lines that lead the sight and are significant that they reflect the meanings through the interconnection of the forms among themselves as if they were an unbroken chain of movement and continuity in all models.
10- The stylistic characteristics appeared according to the indirect, free style, which allowed the designer to deal with all the architectural parts and components as blocks of color, and each dimension in them represents a chromatic composition commensurate with the nature of space in harmony and harmony with the Mondrian style and based on the magnification and reduction, grace and strength of lines and spaces, and this is evident in all models.
In light of the results and the most important indicators, the following conclusions were discovered:
1- The style possesses a state of expressive power that refers it to the homogeneity of shapes and colors and gives it a degree of conformity or imitation, while preserving the original style.
2- The style is sometimes based on the imaginative aspect that generates creativity and a pattern of relationships that are similar in front of the designer and make him take compatible and different decisions in building shapes within the workspace such as walls, ceilings, blocks and barriers in the design of interior spaces.
3- The style attributes give the design clarity, strength and beauty, which is reflected positively on the design path and its success, and enables the user to change and enjoy within an environment and space with interconnected sides as shapes and colors.
4- What the partial structure achieves are formations that are interconnected with the pattern of other relations in the secondary and main parts, by relying on the processes of enlargement and reduction between the parts as a unit of diversity and renewal.
5- The deliberativeness of visual discourse derives its components from the unity of shapes, the distribution of colors, and the arrangement as a system and organization, which constitutes a system that represents style as identity and characteristics.
6- Compliance in formulating and simulating the style comes from the creative touches that are framed by the formal integration processes and its harmonic dimension is achieved in harmony within the graphic design proposals in the interior spaces as vertical and horizontal determinants.
7- Each stylistic diversity takes the design to the new formal assignment as an intellectual perspective that intertwines between the philosophy of form and the nature of the place, which calls for strength in coherence and formal representation.
In light of the stated results and conclusions, and what has been achieved from a foundational scientific base on the subject of style, the research recommends the following:
1- Paying attention to the style of methods and employing them in the design achievement in a way that suits the type of topics, whether abstract or realistic.
2- Coming up with artistic methods based on the national identity and having originality and a historical and civilized dimension that can be applied in practical lessons of graphic design art.
3- Paying attention to international methods and studying their roots, history and characteristics because of their reflection in organizing and arranging the formal and color overlap between graphics and interior design and the treatment of private and public spaces.
4- Determining the subject of style and stylistics as a singularity for a subject related to education and training in educational institutions such as the College of Fine Arts, and achieving the best ways to achieve design in the diversity of disciplines.
5- Finding intellectual bases that verify mechanisms for dealing with imitation, intertextuality, and formal metaphor for methods, identifying each type of what the creative artistic works are dealing with, and striving to open lessons and workshops for criticism and analysis of old and modern methods.
6- Urging designers and workers in the field of design experience to renew and combine methods and reach stylistic principles and elements that ensure successful design, and establish a special and general stylistic system in the field of general and precise specialization.
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