Biofuels in Argentina, Brazil and Colombia
Carmen Luisa Vásquez Stanescu1, Emeldo Caballero2, Vladimir Marconi Ortiz Bustamante3, Guillermo E. Guevara-Viera4, Raul V. Guevara-Viera5
1 Universidad Nacional Experimental Politécnica Antonio José de Sucre, Barquisimeto, Venezuela
2 Universidad Libre,Colombia [email protected]
3Universidad Técnica De Cotopaxi [email protected]
4Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de Cuenca, Ecuador [email protected]
5Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de Cuenca, Ecuador [email protected]
Abstract. The use of biofuels worldwide has been taken as a measure to achieve the decarbonization of the economies of the countries. In this framework, Latin America is the second largest producing region in the world, after the USA in North America.
Among the countries that produce and consume the greatest amount of biofuels are Ar- gentina, Brazil and Colombia. These countries are responsible for producing and con- suming second-generation biofuels from sugarcane, soybeans, corn and wheat. This article has been dedicated to showing the development of biofuel production and con- sumption in these three countries. Highlighting Brazil as the largest producer and con- sumer.
Keywords: Argentina, Biofuels, Brazil, Colombia, Decarbonization of the economy.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  is responsible for studying the science of climate change. Climate changes and global warming are responsible for the in- crease in the average temperature of the planet, sea levels and the melting of the polar caps and snow. Various consequences derive from this, particularly in Latin America periods of intense drought and reduced frequency of rains, leading to the risk of hydroelectric generation in the region. The IPCC has published in its reports that the existence of climate change is unequivocal and that it is due to anthropogenic causes, with 95% certainty  . This has led to a worldwide history of policies and international agreements to try to slow down the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) that cause these changes, including the aforementioned Paris Agreement .
The consumption of fossil fuels for transport, power generation, the industrial sector and oth- ers, are the main sources of GHG emissions. By 2019, 84% of the world energy matrix is dependent on liquid fuels, gas and coal . In the search to reduce emissions and dependence on these fuels, a new alternative of biological fuels or biofuels has emerged, which seeks to satisfy part of the world energy demand in the countries .
Biofuels are obtained from organic waste and are considered an unconventional renewable energy source. Currently, the United States is among the largest producers of biofuels world- wide. In 2014, this country produced about 4,700 and 54,300 million liters of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively, from soybeans, corn and wheat . Of these, approximately 30%
South America ranks third in the world for biofuel production, with Argentina, Brazil and Colombia standing out. Brazil bases its production on sugar cane, soybeans and corn, export- ing its surplus to the USA in 2014. On the other hand, Argentina bases its production on soy- beans, being the fifth largest producer in the world. Finally, Colombia produces bioethanol from sugar cane .
Biofuels are classified in first, second, third and fourth generation. The first generation comes from biomass, especially from agricultural crops . Similar to the previous case, the second generation are produced from biomass obtained as agricultural waste or waste plant material . The third generation are based on the use of aquatic plants . Finally, the fourth gen- eration is produced from uncultivated land, without destruction of biomass . Table 1 shows the types, processes and technologies applied in first and second generation liquid bio- fuels, highlighting that their application is not only for transportation, but also for power gen- eration.
Table 1. Types, processes and technologies applied in biofuels
Type Input Conversion
Utility and Technology
Technology First generation liquid fuels
Bioethanol Sugar cane and starches
Fermentation Transport Commercial Biodiesel Oilseeds, microalgae,
vegetable and animal fats
Esterification Transport Commercial and I+D First generation liquid fuels
Bioethanol Lignocellulose, grass, residues
agricultural and fore- stry
Hydrolysis, gasification (Fischer- Tropsch)
Biodiesel Biomass Gasification
Transport and genera- tion of electricity
The production of biofuels begins with the policies established to achieve sustainable devel- opment, established in various international agreements, where the 2015 Paris one stands out . Initially it was thought that, like that happens with fossil fuels, it would be produced in an unlimited way, however the amount of land required for growing biomass limits this pro- duction. .
This article shows the growing development of biofuels in Latin America in the countries Argentina, Brazil and Colombia for the period 2009 to 2019.
2 Carbon dioxide emissions from Argentina, Brazil and Colombia
Fig. 1 shows the evolution of carbon dioxide emissions for the period 2009 and 2019 of the countries of Argentina, Brazil and Colombia. In Brazil there is a decrease in emissions from 2014, unlike in other countries, where a slow increase is seen.
Fig. 1. Carbon dioxide emissions of the countries Argentina, Brazil and Colombia for the pe- riod 2009 to 2019 
3 Producción y consumo de biocombustibles de Argentina, Brasil y Colombia
Fig. 2 shows the evolution of biofuel production, for the period 2009 and 2019 of the coun- tries of Argentina, Brazil and Colombia. In this figure it can be seen that the largest producer is Brazil and that it has maintained sustained growth in its production. On the other hand, Fig.
3 shows the consumption of biofuels for these three (3) countries and, similar to the previous case, Brazil maintains a growing trend by being the largest consumer. Finally, in Fig. 4 it is possible to observe the production and consumption of biofuels in these three countries, where the tendency of these two indicators is to be equal.
Fig. 2. Biofuel production of Argentina, Brazil and Colombia for the period 2009 to 2019 
Fig. 3. Biofuel Consumption of Argentina, Brazil and Colombia for the period 2009 to 2019 
Fig. 4. Biofuel consumption and production in Argentina, Brazil and Colombia for the period 2009 to 2019 
The use of biofuels worldwide has been taken as a measure to achieve the decarbonization of the economies of the countries. In this framework, Latin America is the second largest pro- ducing region in the world, after the USA in North America. Among the countries that pro- duce and consume the greatest amount of biofuels are Argentina, Brazil and Colombia. These countries are responsible for producing and consuming second-generation biofuels from su- garcane, soybeans, corn and wheat. This article shows the development of biofuel production and consumption in these three countries. Highlighting Brazil as the largest producer and consumer. In Brazil there is a decrease in emissions from 2014, unlike in other countries, where a slow increase is seen. Additionally, it is shown that the largest producer is Brazil and that it has maintained a sustained growth in its production. In addition to the consumption of biofuels for these three (3) countries and, similar to the previous case, Brazil maintains a growing trend as it is the largest consumer. Finally, it is possible to observe the production
and consumption of biofuels in these three countries, where the tendency of these two indica- tors is to be equal.
1. IPCC, «Resumen General del IPCC. Primer Informe de Evaluación,» WHO, 1990.
2. IPCC, «Cambio Climático 2007. Informe de Sintesis,» OMM/PNUMA, Ginebra, 2007.
3. IPCC, «Cambio climático 2013: la base de la ciencia física,» IPCC, Ginebra, 2013.
4. ONU, «17 Objetivos que transforman el mundo,» [En línea]. Available:
https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/es/. [Último acceso: 03 04 2020].
5. bq, «Statistical Review of World Energy/2020 69th edition,» bq, 2020.
6. J. Morelos, «Análisis de la variación de la eficiencia en la producción de biocombustibles en Latinomérica,» Estudios Gerenciales, vol. 32, pp. 120-126, 2016.
7. F. Ramos, M. Soledad y M. Villar, «Biocombustibles,» Ciencia Hoy, vol. 69, pp. 69-74, 2016.
8. F. Higera, J. Trsitancho y L. Florez, «Biocombustibles y su aplicación en Colombia,»
Scientia et Technica, vol. 34, pp. 171-175, 2007.
9. C. Alejos y E. Calvo, «Biocombustibles de primera generación,» Rev. Per. Quím. Ing.
Quím. , vol. 18, pp. 19-30, 2015.
10. A. González, I. Jimenez, M. Susa, S. Restrepo y J. Gómez, «Biocombustibles de segunda generación y biodiesl: una mirada a la contribución de la Universidad de Los Andes,»
Revista de Ingeniería, vol. 28, pp. 70-82, 2008.
11. R. Ramos, G. Alpírez, M. Stillianova, M. Cabarcas, L. Palomar y L. Pelayo, «Lignina obtenida de residuos agrícolas como biocombustibles de tercera generación,» Ciencia y Tecnología, 2015.
12. I. Badrán, I. Ocampo, J. Cruz, J. Trejo y C. Antonio, «Biocombustibles sólidos: uan alternativa económica y sostenible para la generación de energía en México,» Digital Ciencia, vol. 12, nº 2, pp. 61-66, 2019.
13. NU, «Acuerdo de París,» ONU, 2015.
14. E. Hodson, G. Henry y E. Trigo, «La bioeconomía. Nuevo marco de crecimiento en América Latina,» Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, 2019.
15. N. Nodehi, S. Hashemi, F. Azimi y S. Khorsands, «Distribución del tamano de nanoparticulos en las emisiones de escape de autobuses deésel y GNC,» Journal of Air Pollution and Health, vol. 2, nº 4, pp. 175-180, 2018.
16. Allende, Puliafito y Panigatti, «COMPARACIÓN DE LAS EMISIONES DEL TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO DE PASAJEROS PARA EL GRAN MENDOZA CON DIVERSAS TECNOLOGÍAS,» Universidad Tecnológica Nacional , 2015.