Case-Study Method in Students Training
1Dustnazar Omonovich Khimmataliev, 2Sayfiddin Shamsiddinovich Bakhriddinov,
3Zukhra Kosimjonovna Jumananazarova
1Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences (DSc), Professor Irrigation and agriculture in Tashkent Institute of Mechanical Engineers, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
2Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Namangan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Namangan, Uzbekistan.
3Teacher, Namangan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Namangan, Uzbekistan.
Abstract. The article discusses the specifics of using the case study method in teaching students. A specific mechanism is proposed, the logic of the development of such projects, the use of business incubator infrastructure. The essence of such a Case is that students should talk aloud about their intentions, the teacher should see the logic of their actions. In addition, in the event that any of the actions that are relevant to the case cannot be graphically depicted, the teacher can say the result of such an action. Such teaching methods help not only master the theory, but also test students their knowledge in practice in a situation as close to real as possible.
Key words: social entrepreneurship, social project, business incubator infrastructure.
Case study - (case English.- collection, case study, case study) - This method is based on the creation of artificial life situations or artificially created situations that create habitual situations and require learners to seek more appropriate solutions.
The case is a clear presentation of specific conditions from a group of individuals or individuals that can help learners to express a problem and find a better solution.
(2) additional information, including audio, video and electronic transmitters, and training materials.
The relevance of the learning situation:
The real situation relates to the realities of teaching: the case provides students with the opportunity to model their activities in diagnosing the situation, expressing hypotheses, identifying problems, gathering additional information, specifying hypotheses, and designing specific steps to solve problems.
The case gives students the freedom to analyze, search for solutions and solve problems.
In reviewing the case, trainees create an educational process and create an atmosphere of real exchange of ideas in the process.
Material and methods
Training in specific situations (the Case Study method) is one of the main ways of educational work. This method of work allows you to combine the theory and practice of management, forms the competencies necessary for managers and specialists, skills and professional activities:
- collection and processing of information, determination of forms and methods of search, classification, identification and interpretation of key information contained in primary documentation and reports of commercial organizations;
- understanding the relationship of various parameters of the external and internal environment;
- vision of the problem behind specific situations, description and assessment of the situation, identification of potential threats and development opportunities;
- form and defend strategies, tactical and operational plans;
- predict the development of economic situations and processes, make decisions regarding the management of various aspects of activity;
- assess the risk and choose the means of insurance, reduction in conditions of high uncertainty;
- criticize and respond constructively to criticism in the process of collective decision- making.
The list of competencies, abilities and skills that are formed during training in specific situations is contained in the program for each discipline with the criteria for availability.
Results and discussion
Learning in specific situations involves mastering the students in a special way of preparing and working in practical classes. In the most general form, recommendations for mastering this method are as follows.
In preparation for the practical lesson, the student receives a task with a description of the situation. The situation, as a list of events, actions, general characteristics of various actors (employees, customers, contractors, etc.), information, information about the external environment (source information materials), requires the choice of one or another way of professional behavior of the head or specialist of the apparatus management, decision making. In preparation, firstly, it is necessary to clearly define all these elements of the situation (both explicit and hidden) based on its description, then it is required to establish the
degree of materiality of each element, the strength of its influence on the assessment of the situation. At the same time, it is very important to understand that in a situation there are both objective and subjective factors, and all of them are the result of the development of the external environment, the market and the commercial enterprise itself, organization. Such an approach (taking into account chronology, dynamics) maximally contributes to a deep analysis and identification of the real, most significant (key) problem requiring a priority solution. This stage is called diagnostics.
The second step in preparation is the formulation of a problem that requires, in your opinion, a priority solution. Briefly and clearly (in one or two sentences), it is necessary to clarify the contradiction of which two (or more) elements and which object underlie those adverse symptoms that were identified in the description of the situation. As a rule, the formulation of the problem is accompanied by an indication of the concept used, a theoretical approach to the analysis of information and decision-making (the concept of marketing, management by goals, etc.). If appropriate, the possibility of using several theoretical approaches and, of course, several formulations of the problem or several key problems is indicated. The key nature of the problem formulated must be carefully argued. Classification, sorting of information during the selection of arguments can take a lot of time, but it is needed to clarify its position.
At the third stage of preparation, alternative options for possible actions and ways to solve the problem are highlighted. Necessary and sufficient conditions for their implementation are indicated.
The fourth stage is to clarify the possible both positive and negative consequences of the adoption of a particular method of solving the problem, as well as the restrictions that are the criteria for choosing a solution. At the same time, special attention is paid to objective restrictions (availability / absence of funds, etc.), and subjective factors, preferences of managers, decision makers, subsequent executors (their education, qualifications, motivation, way of thinking).
The final stage of work with the situation (case study) is the teacher’s assessment of the completed task. The assessment is carried out by the Expert Assessment method in accordance with the specified criteria. The set of criteria is determined in accordance with the program of the course being studied. If necessary, the assessment can be carried out by several teachers. For each criterion of the assignment, the teacher evaluates the level in points on a ten-point scale with a brief comment reflecting his opinion.
In conditions of multilevel education at different levels of training, practical situations (cases) that are different in nature are used.
The main types of practical situations (cases) are presented in table 1.
Types of practical situations (cases)
Informational and illustrative situations (object-oriented) information: small volume,
the situation is described simply, the problem is precisely indicated, decisions made, actions and actors
the task requires a description of the phenomenon, in fact, the object by the elements, the process by stages, operations, etc.
Information and analytical situations (problem-oriented) Information: medium
volume, not completely structured
the situation is described simply, the problem is obvious, although it is not indicated exactly, solutions, actors, reference information are indicated
the task requires the sorting of facts, elements, operations, actions, their selection when explaining the problem and assessing the legal basis, actions, quality of decisions Information and diagnostic situations (situation-oriented)
information: significant amount, not clearly presented
the situation is not clearly described, the problem is implied, but not expressed explicitly, not fully justified
the task requires an interpretation of the facts for the sake of clarifying the problem, identifying key information, ranking the arguments for and against Analytical and design situations (object-oriented)
Information: small volume, clearly presented
the situation is described with an exact indication of the problem, a methodology for assessing the situation, the desired actions is given
the task requires a description and assessment of the state of the phenomenon, the process based on the calculation of indicators, comparison of arguments and forecasts of the situation
Analytical and diagnostic situations (situation-oriented) information: average volume
is not clearly presented
the situation is described with an incomplete, inaccurate indication of the problem, only the actions that caused it are obvious
the task requires an assessment of the method, the quality of the formulation of the problem, the validity of the actions that caused it, and the forecast of options for the development of the situation
Analytical and procedural situations (process-oriented) Information: large volume,
not clearly presented
the situation is described, the problem is implied, but the situation itself is not completely clear
the task requires an interpretation of the problem for the sake of understanding the criteria, standards, limitations of the development of decisions on methods, management procedures
Conceptual and analytical situations (object-oriented) Information: medium
volume, clearly structured
indicated one-dimensional concept, simple situation and problem
the task requires
interpretation of the concept,
assessment of its
applicability for the development of solutions to a key management problem in this situation
Conceptual and diagnostic situations (situation-oriented) information: medium
volume, poorly structured
the problem is indicated, the concept of actions that caused the problem is implicitly visible
the task requires identifying the concept of actions that caused the problem, assessing the validity of actions, decisions made and
forecasts for the development of the situation
Conceptual and prognostic situations (process-oriented) Information: significant in
volume, almost no structure
problems are implied or indicated, but the situation is confused, the key problem is not completely clear
the task requires identifying a key problem, choosing concepts, approaches to solving it, making decisions about plans, methods of action and management
At the first levels, information cases prevail, which are characterized by a small amount of information, a clear and accurate presentation of it. They constantly accompany lecture classes and make up from 50 to 60 percent of the study time. This achieves a concentration of attention on simple educational goals that are directly related to the development of behavior skills of representatives of certain working professions in specific jobs. Separate analytical cases are aimed at developing the ability to evaluate decisions and actions of others, both representatives of working professions, and certain categories of managers, specialists of the management apparatus. Conceptual cases can be used as an exception to illustrate the complexity and diversity of management as a profession, science and art. At the same time, simple one-dimensional cases are offered. As a result of the first stage, the student must learn to navigate the peculiarities of the internal environment of commercial enterprises of various industries, taking into account the main factors of the internal environment of these enterprises, as well as evaluate and build professional behavior as an executor, representative of the working profession and technical employee of the management apparatus.
At the second level of education, the active use of analytical cases begins. Their volume reaches 60-70 percent of the study time. The purpose of their use is to develop the ability to identify and analyze alternative options for professional behavior of various workers, to determine ways and form action programs based on sound management decisions. During this stage of training, the student must master the basic analytical operations related to the development of managerial decisions that are required to be carried out by a specialist in the management apparatus of a commercial commercial enterprise of a particular specialization. Conceptual cases at this level are used to develop skills for the
synthesis of first-level concepts that are characteristic of the work of lower-level managers (individual decision-making style, etc.).
At the third level, complex concepts and combinations of concepts, a multifunctional policy of commercial enterprises, organizations and firms are introduced into the content of training courses. They show students the nature of the work of senior executives, provide the initial skills needed to participate in the management of commercial enterprises, organizations as specialists, functional managers. Analytical cases are subordinate to the same task. Offering a large amount of poorly structured information and unclearly worded problems, they form the ability to assess ways, articulate problems, substantiate plans, action programs, criteria, standards, limitations and options for managerial decisions about ways and procedures of behavior.
Thus, students can try themselves in the role of the main professions of future specialists and determine which one is closer to them, which, perhaps, will help them to determine their occupation in the future. The essence of such a Case is that students should talk aloud about their intentions, the teacher should see the logic of their actions. In addition, in the event that any of the actions that are relevant to the case cannot be graphically depicted, the teacher can say the result of such an action. Such teaching methods help not only master the theory, but also test students their knowledge in practice in a situation as close to real as possible. In our opinion, Case Study is an integral part of the training of future specialists, this technique should be used as often as possible in order to improve students' professional skills and prepare them for the realities of their professional profession.
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