A descriptive study to assess obesity and selected food habits among adolescents at Pune
Associate Professor, Symbiosis College of Nursing, Symbiosis International (Deemed University) Abstract:
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health leading to reduced life expectancy and/ or increased health problems.The purpose of the study is to assess obesity and selected food habits among adolescents with a view to provide data regarding the prevalence of obesity. The descriptive approachwas considered appropriate for the present study as it is aimed to assess the obesity and selected food habits among adolescents. Non-Experimental Research Design is used in the present study.50 participants were selected with the help of purposive sampling technique. The tool was prepared to identify obesity and selected food habits. The results showed that maximum adolescents preferred junk food. More than 28% of adolescents preferred canteen food.28% of adolescents were unhealthy out of that 22% were males. It is concluded and recommended that obesity is dreadful condition and hence to be take care at early stage only. Therefore awareness programs should be executed to prevent this.
Key words: Obesity, Food Habits, Adolescents, INTRODUCTION
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health leading to reduced life expectancy and/ or increased health problems. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measurement which compares weight and height. It defines people as overweight if their BMI is between 25 and 30 kg/ m2, and obese when it greater than 30 kg/ m2 For the first time, the number of overweight individuals around the world rivals the number, who are underweight. Developing nations have also joined the ranks of
countries troubled by obesity. In 1999, the United Nations (UN) survey found obesity is growing in all developing regions, even in the countries beset by hunger. Figures on the global prevalence of childhood obesity have been complied by the WHO where several developing countries such as Nicaragua, Brazil, Antigua, Zambia, Venezuela and Peru showed a prevalence rate of over 2 percent and countries such as Barbados, Honduras, Lesotha, Bolivia, Tunidad and Tobago, Iran and Maurititius have a more than 4% prevalence while Jamaica and Chile top the list with a 10%
greater prevalence rate in preschool children. According to this database with WHO, India has a preschool child obesity prevalence of about 1 percent.
Obesity can occur at any age and generally increased with age. Infants with excessive weight gain have an increased incidence of obesity in later life. Childhood obesity is often the result of an interplay between many genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphism in various genes controlling appetite and metabolism predispose individuals to obesity when sufficient calories are present.This is the need of today to explore more the prevalence, risk factors and deleterious effects of obesity.
A descriptive study to assess obesity and selected food habits among adolescents at Pune Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to assess obesity and selected food habits among adolescents with a view to provide data regarding the prevalence of obesity.
Objectives of the Study
To identify the prevalence of obesity among adolescents
To assess food habits among adolescents.
To determine the association of obesity among adolescentswith socio-demographic variables.
The descriptive approach was considered appropriate for the present study as it is aimed to assess the obesity and selected food habits among adolescents. Non-Experimental Research Design is used in the present study.50 participants were selected with the help of purposive sampling technique. The tool was prepared to identify obesity and selected food habits. An extensive review of literature, expert's opinion, the investigator's professional experience and informal interviews of students provided the basis for construction of tool.Analysis of data was done in accordance with the objectives of the study. Study was done by using the descriptive and inferential statistics as calculated by frequency, percentage, mean score, standard deviation and Karl Pearson's correlation, chi-square test, BMI of school students assessed as per percentiles in order to assess the obesity and selected food habits.
Section-I : Sample Characteristics
Majority (84%) were from the age group 11 -12 years followed by the age group 12-13yrs (2%). Majority (78%) of students were males and females were (32%). Most of Students were from Urban areas (88%) and only (12%) were from Rural areas. Regarding their religion about (82%) were from Hindu religion .Half (52%) of students were from nuclear family and (48%) were from joint families.
Majority (70%) of students have 2 siblings followed by (22%) subjects followed by (22%) subjects having more than 2 siblings and only (8%) have one sibling. SECTION-II :
Table no. 1: Prevalence of obesity among school students.
S.No. BMI Percentile n %age
Under Weight Healthy Weight Over Weight
> 5th 5thupto 85th 85th to < 95th
10 68 14
4. Obese = or > 95th 4 8
The above table represents that 68% of the students whose percentile is 5thupto 85th are having the BMI of healthy weight and only 8% of the students whose percentile is equal to or more than 95th, are being BMI of obese category.
SECTION III- Food Habits among School Students.
Table 2: Fad Diet Scale
Sr . no.
1. Biscuits 9 (18%) 33(66%) 8(16%)
2. Chocolate 6 (12%) 32(64%) 12(24%)
3. Toffees 4(8%) 34(68%) 12(24%)
4. Weffers 28(56%) 18(36%) 14(8%)
5. Kurkure 7(14%) 30(60%) 13(26%)
6. Chips 5(10%) 33(66%) 12(24%)
7. Fun pops 11(22%) 29(58%) 10(20%)
8. Bhel-puri 20(40%) 26(52%) 4(8%)
9. Samosa 10(20%) 34(68%) 6(12%)
10. Spring roll 17(34%) 29(58%) 4(8%)
11. Patty 11(22%) 36(72%) 3(6%)
12. Ice gola 17(34%) 25(50%) 8(16%)
13. Icecream 9(18%) 27(54%) 14(28%)
14. Tea 18(36%) 10(20%) 22(44%)
15. Cold drinks 7(14%) 31(62%) 12(24%)
The table represents that maximum no. of students (66%) sometimes eat biscuit and only (18%) are the students who have never ingested the biscuits and mere (16%) of the students are always in the habit of eating biscuits.
The table depicts that maximum of students (60%) and (66%) sometimes eats kurkure and chips respectively. Only (14%) and (10%) are the students who have never ingested the same respectively. Rest (26%) and (24%) of the students are always in the habits of eating kurkure and chips respectively.
The table assays that maximum (52%) of students sometimes eat bhel-puri and (40%) are the students who have never ingested bhel-puri and mere (8%) of the students are always in the habit of eating bhel-puri.
The table shows that maximum number of students 34(68%) respectively sometimes eat samosa’s. Only (20%) of students have never ingested same. Rest (12%) always eat the same.
The table depicts that maximum (58%) of students sometimes eat spring roll while (34%) never eat the same rest (8%) of students always eat the same.
The table represents that maximum (72%) of students sometimes eat patty and only (22%) and (6%) of students never and always eat the same respectively.
The table shows that maximum (44%) of students are always in the habit of having tea. Only (36%) are the students who never taken tea. Rest (20%) of the students sometimes take the same.
Table 3: Times of food taken in a day by adolescents S.
Time of food taken Frequency (n) Percentage(%)
Three times only More than three times Less than three times
Table 3 shows more than half (64%) students take food three times a day followed by (24%) students who take food less than three times in a day and (12%) students who take more than three times food in a day.
Table 4: Type of lunch preferred S.
Type of lunch Preferred Frequency (n) Percentage (%) 1.
Homemade Canteen snacks
Table 4 shows that about 3/4th (72%) of students prefer homemade lunch in school and 1/4th (28%) students prefer canteen snacks in school.
Table 5 : Means of transport used by School Students for coming to School.
Means of transport used Frequency (n) Percentage (%) 1.
Walking Bicycle Private vehicle
2 6 42
Table 5shows that more than 3/4th (84%) students come to school private vehicle (car, bike) and rest (12%) and (4%) come by bicycle and by walking.
Section IV:Association of obesity and socio demographic variables
Maximum (84% are from age group 11-12 yrs from which 56% students have normal weight but still 28% students are unhealthy. More than 3/4th (78%) students are males out of which 48%
students have normal weight and rest of 22% are unhealthy.About 88% students are from urban areas out of which 58% students have normal weight and rest are unhealthy.About 48% of students are from joint family from which 30% have normal weight and rest of 18% are unhealthy. More than 2/4th (52%) students are from Nuclear family from which 38% students have normal weight and rest of 14% are unhealthy. Maximum (70%) of students have two siblings out of which 48% students have normal weight and rest of 22% students are unhealthy.
Children are the one who are very much attracted towards the foods available in school. They are not aware that these foods can cause obesity. They are only concerned about their taste. Bad food habits lead to assess the effect of food habits on obesity..
1. Kotani K. Nishida M, Yamashita S, Funaharhi T, Fujoka S, Ishikawa K, Tarwi S and Matsuzawa Y, Two decades of annual medical examination in Japanese obese children, Internet J of Obes and Rel Metabolic Disorder, 21: 912-921, 1997.
2. Gurney M, Gorstein J, The global prevalence of obesity - an initial overview of the available data, World Health Stats Quarterly, 41: 251-254, 1988.
3. Kaur S, Kapil U, Singh P (2005) Patterns of chronic diseases amongst adolescent obese children in developing countries. Curr. Sci 88: 1052-1056.
4. Sawane, K., &Barde, S. (2019). Mother’s knowledge on nutrition and incidence of malnutrition. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 10(1), 32-34.
5. Baruah, Himakshi, Pragaya Dashora, and Arti Parmar. "Impact of cyberbullying on psychological health of adolescents." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IJHSS) 6.4 (2017): 137-144.
6. James J, Kerr D (2005) "Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks", Int. J.
Obes (Lond) 29 (Suppl 2) : 854-7.
7. Horton TJ, Drougas H, Brochey A, Reed GW, Peters JC, Hill JO (1995) "Fat and CHO overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage", Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62(1): 19- 29.
8. Beniwal, P. R. I. Y. A. N. K. A., and CHANDRA KALA Singh. "Role Of-Socio- Economic Status In Enchancing Adolescents Creative Thinking." International Journal of Humanitie 6.1 (2017): 37-42.
9. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatolog and Nutrition (PDF).
10. Brijalska IJ, Kumar S, Stewart PM (1997) Does central obesity reflect "Cushing's disease of the omentum?" Lancet 349 (9060): 1210-3
11. Deka, Manjusha, and Lanu Devi. "Understanding Adolescents’ Emotionality: An Analysis of Factors Affecting Emotional Intelligence." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IJHSS) 5.6 (2016): 125-132.
12. Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE Bajema CJ, Dietz WH (November 1992). "Long term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harward growth study of 1922-1935", The new England journal of medicine 327 (19): 1350-5.
13. Strychar J (January 2006) "Diet in the management of weight loss" CMAJ 174(1): 56-63.
14. Epstein LH, Roemmich JN, Robinson Jt, (2008).
15. PANT, KUSHA, and RITU SINGH. "Understanding social and emotional maturity of adolescents: Analysing impact of birth order." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5, 221 230 (2016).
16. Ong KK, Ahmed ML, Emmett PN, Preece MA, Bunger DB (2000) "Association between postnatal catch up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study", BMJ 320.
17. James PT, Leach R, Kalamara E &Shayeghi M (2001), The worldwide obesity epidemic.
Obesity Research, 9 (Suppl 4) 228 S - 233 S.
18. Green V, (2005), The domino effect: obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, British Journal of Community Nursing, 10, 358-361.
19. Rajeswari, S., and J. O. J. G. Eljo. "A study on emotional adjustment of adolescent school students." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences 2.2 (2013): 49-56.
20. Wabitsch M, (2000), Overweight and obesity in European children: Definition and diagnostic procedure, risk factors and consequences for later health outcome. European Journal of pediatrics, 159 (Suppl.1), S8-S13, doi: 10, 1007/PL00014368.
21. Vaska V and Volkmer R, (2004), increasing prevalence of obesity in South Australian 4- year-olds: 1995-2002, Journal of pediatrics and child health, 40, 353-355, doi: 10.1111/j- 1034-4810.2004.00401.x.
22. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT Boyce WF King MA and Pickett W(2004), Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary in habits and physical activity patterns, Journal of Adolescent Health, 35 (360-367).