Review of Jivhagat Vyadhi from Various Samhita
Yogita R. Sathe¹, Rupali R. Bawa², Nitin S. Chandurkar³, Pavan R. Gulhane4, Smita Kadu5
1MD- Scholar, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Ayurved & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Dr. D.Y.
Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune.
2Associate Professor, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Ayurved & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Dr.
D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune.
3Professor, & HOD, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Ayurved & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Dr.
D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune.
4Assistant Professor, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Ayurved & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Dr.
D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune.
5Professor & HOD (Kriya Sharir), Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Ayurved & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Dr. D.Y. Patil
The tongue is a vital organ in the mouth, which operatess food for mastication and is used in the act of swallowing. In ayurveda, Tongue examination is mentioned as Jivha parikshan. As tongue acts as mirror of digestive system as well as other diseases, it is important to do detail study about tongue examination. In Yogratnakara, importance of tongue examination with its classification as per dominance of dosha i.e, Vataj, Pittaj, Kaphaj and sannipataj has been explained. Jivha parikshan is included in ashtavidha parikshan because of its utility in diagnosis of disease. In classical texts, acharyas have documented various Jivhagat rogas like jivhakantak, alas, Upjivhika and so on. But these details are present in scattered and insufficient form. So, attempt has been made to highlight the jivhagat rogas with their clinical findings from ayurvedic aspect making it easier to understand diagnosis of disease with holistic approach.
Keywords- tongue, jivha parikshan, jivhagat rogas, asthavidha pariksha, etc
The sense organs eyes, ear, nose, tongue and skin help to protect our body. In ayurveda these sense organs are described as panchaindriya namely chakshu, karna, ghrana, jihva and twacha.
These indriyas are efficient in perceiving their objects only when they are supported by mind, through which the knowledge is perceived. Jivha is one of these indriya which work not only as dnynaendriya but also as karmendriya. Acharya charak considerJivha as buddhi indriya. Jivha is called as Rasanendriya as its primary function is Rasagrahan. It also performs function of vaakutpatti, so known as vaagindriya. When any foreign material comes in contact with tongue, it prevents its ingestion by sorting out which makes it to consider as sparshnendriya. Ayurveda asserts various ways of examination for diagnosis of disease. Among these methods, Jihva pariksha (examination of tongue) has great significance, as it is included under the eight folds of
digestive system. Hence examination of tongue shape, colour, coating, texture, how it moves should be done regardless of patient illness. A wide range of tongue diseases are explained both in modern science and ayurveda. But the data regarding the Jivha and its diseases is available scattered and insufficient form in ayurveda. Detail description about tongue, its anatomy, physiology, its function and diseases are not available altogether in ayurveda samhita. (Need of study) Hence to treat the diseases of any organ, before going into the diagnosis and treatment, knowledge of structural, physiological aspects of body is inevitable. Thorough knowledge of prakrutasharir of Jivha will make us to understand the vikruti. There by, line of management can be designed properly. Therefore, a conceptual study of Jivha and its various diseases in Ayurveda is made with all available references from Ayurveda.
Materials and methods: -
Available Ayurvedic Samhitas are used for collecting the references.
The references are collected, observed, analysed and discussed thoroughly and drawn conclusion.
Jivha Sampat lakshana1
In ayurveda normal tongue is said to have slakshna and suchi guna which means it should neither too dry nor too wet and should not emit bad odour or taste. The veins underneath the tongue are not distended.
1. Color: Shyavarakta (Uniformly pink or Pale-red)
2. Shape: Tanu (Neither too thick nor too thin and has even width or oval in shape) 3. Moisture: Slakshna (A healthy tongue is moist)
4. Coating: Nirlipta or ishathlipta (Thin transparent or white coating)
5. Movement: Akampa (when sticking out it is straight rather than veering to one side) Examination of tongue
1. Position of the patient: Sitting/Supine
2. Ask the patient to open the mouth and protrude the tongue outside as possible to visualize clearly and observe carefully for its surface, size, colour, coating, etc to know what is happening inside the body.
Table 1: Tongue features according to Dosha2
Dosha Features of the tongue.
Vataja Cold, rough, and fissured
Pittaj Red, Dark, Blue
Kaphaj White, greasy
Sannipataj Black, ulceration, fissure, dry,Dvandvaja Mixed features
Table 2: Tongue disease according to various factors Sr.
Tongue variations accordingly
1 Size Deerghajihva (Macroglosia), Hriswajihva (Microglosia)
2 Colour Shwetabh (pale), Paridagdha (Red raw/Angry looking), Shweta (White), Neela (Blue), Strawberry (Paridagdha), Peeta (Yellow), Krishna (Black), Furred tongue (Liptajivha /upadehajivha)
3 Dryness RookshaJivha
4 Pigmentation Atitanu (bald tongue), kharaJivha or kantakJivha (fissured tongue), scarred tongue, mushroom like tongue
5 Movement Slow rhythmic tremor, adhijivhika, sthabdaJivha(Immobile tongue),Jivha vepana (lizard tongue), deviated tongue
Table no 3: Tongue diseases according to ayurveda samhita3,4,6 Sr.
1 VatikJivhakantak VatikJivhakantak
2 PaittikJivhakantak PaittikJivhakantak 3 ShleshmikJivhakantak ShleshmikJivhakantak
4 Alas Alas
5 Upjivhika Upjivhika
6 - Adhijivhika
Table no.4 : Jivha roga with Lakshna according to Samhita3,4,5 Sr .
Tongue disease Dosha Symptoms Sadhya-
sensation (Supta) and on touch appears rough (Shakpatra khar) 2 PaittikJivhakantak Pitta Yellow in colour (pita varni), burning
sensation (Daha), with small red bumbs I.e, papillae (Raktavarni Mansaankur)
3 ShleshmikJivhakantak Kapha Furry appearance of tongue (like Shalmali kantak), heavy (Guru)
4 Alas Kapha-
On the floor of tongue indurated inflammation appears (Shotha), tongue become stiff (stabddh), smell and looks like fish scales (Matsya gandhi)
5 Upjivhika Kapha,
the middle of tongue gets slightly elevated (Utsedh), burning sensation (Daha), itching (Kandu)
6 Adhijivhika Kapha,
Floor, middle appear like tip of tongue, sweeling with rough touch over papillae (shotha), itching (Kandu), stiffness (stabddha)
In traditional medicine, the method which can non-invasively determines the condition of internal organ is Jivha pariksha (tongue examination). Tongue is essential tool in the clinical examination of diseases so as to understand the health of individual. On basis of coating over the tongue, it is described as Saam(coated) and Niraam (uncoated). In yog ratnakar, depending on prominence of dosha, tongue examination done as vataj, pittaj, kaphaj and sannipataj7. But with these methods we cannot reach to proper diagnosis. Thereby it is necessary to have thorough knowledge of Jivha. The healthy tongue possesses shyavrakta, tanu, and akampa guna. The adhisthan of Jivha is Rasanendriya, performing the function of Rasabhodhan, vakpravrutti, etc.
Acharya Sushrut has said that jivha was developed from the elixir of Kapha, Rakta and Mansa.
Jivha is mainly composed of Bhodhak kapha and pranvayu with dominance of Aap mahabhuta8. Acharya charak has explained the Jivha sampat lakshan in jatisutriya addhya9. In ayurveda, Jivha parikshan is mainly based on dominance of dosha. So, any imbalance in dosha, will create
lakshana accordingly, as in vata dominance Jivha become dry, rough, fissured. So Jivha parikshan is important tool in diagnosis of diseases.
Various diseases of tongue have been explained in samhita. Acharya sushrut has described 5 types of tongue disease viz., VatikJivhakantak, paittikJivhakantak, shleshmikJivhakantak, alas, Upjivhika. Whereas acharya Vaghbat has elaborated 6 types of tongue diseases, by adding Adhijivhika to sushrut'sJivha roga. Out of these Jivha roga, vatikJivha kantak, paitikJivha kantak, shleshmikJivha kantak and adhijivhika are considered as sadhya vyadhi means are curable with treatment9. But, in Alas Jivharoga, there is inflammation of filiform papillae,which makes tongue stiff and hard. In this disease, there is involvement of Kapha, pitta and rakta dosha, making the diseases asaddhya I.e., incurable10. Along with these diseases, there are various abnormalities seen in Jivha based on its size, colour, pigmentation, movement and so on. Hence, Ayurveda asserts examination of Jivha which will make us to understand the vikruti I.e., disease.
Tongue has important role in proper functioning of body. Hence, it's structural and physiological knowledge along with understanding of tongue examination in Jivhagat roga is essential. In ayurveda yogratnakara has done Jivha pariksha on basis of dosha. Acharya vagbhat and acharya sushrut has elaborated about the various tongue disorders. In ayurveda this knowledge of Jivha is scattered and present in insufficient form. As in modern science, various research works are done on tongue examination as well as on tongue diseases. So, in this study holistic approach of Ayurveda in tongue examination together with clinical findings in tongue diseases has been reviewed ably, thereby line of treatment for tongue diseases can be designed properly.
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