The Importance of Distance Education
Alfiya Jienbekovna Turekeeva
Base doctoral student, Nukus state pedagogical institute named after Ajiniyaz, Nukus, Uzbekistan
E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: The article describes the introduction of new technologies in education, technical means and technologies such as teaching, testing and communication tools in distance learning, didactic programs, differential and integrated education in the world educational experience.
Keywords: distance learning, foreign experience, Internet system, virtual schools, didactic programs, electronic textbooks.
The world is evolving so fast now that today’s innovation is becoming obsolete tomorrow.
Therefore, in order to obtain information in a timely manner, mankind has created information technology. A computer is a simple and convenient way to access data. The person working with the data should be able to get it, no matter where the data is located, whether it is in the city or anywhere else in the world.
These and other similar problems are now being solved with the help of computers. Computers are rapidly penetrating all aspects of human life and their number and scope of application is expanding worldwide. This allows computers to evolve day by day.
All this has an impact on the education system as well. Nowadays, it is necessary to change information technologies in order to have a thorough knowledge, because the education system must always meet the time requirements. The modern requirement is a new learning environment, that is, the knowledge acquisition in any place with the help of new information technologies, communication with voluntary educational institutions and obtaining information from anywhere in the world. The Internet can help us with this. Through the Internet, it can be observed that schools, colleges and educational institutions where the education system has been established are now being merged into the evolving ‘virtual schools’. This reduces the distance between educational
institutions and ensures maximum data exchange.
2. Main part
The introduction of new technologies in education leads to the emergence of new educational technologies and teaching forms based on electronic means of information transmission and processing.
Distance learning uses technical tools and technologies such as instructors, testers, and communication tools. Teaching aids include annotated dictionaries, search tools, e-learning manuals, video courses of lectures, and more. Test tools include test questions, self-checking tools. The means of communication are forums, mail, audio and videocassettes.
In distance learning, the teacher’s role is performed by teaching and testing tools (fully automated, complete software products), as well as performs video and electronically published methodological material that forms an automated learning environment.
The e-textbook capabilities can be expanded using modern animation and video tools. These can be video lectures on the training course, demonstrations of production processes, speeches of famous scientists, and more.
Didactic programs for modern computers (electronic textbooks, computer assignments, multimedia electronic textbooks, etc.) are among the multimedia teaching aids. Multimedia provides a highly comfortable and visual presentation of didactic material, which in turn increases students
’interest in learning.
Until recently, concepts such as distance learning, open learning, etc. was almost inseparable.
But, distance education has proven its importance and necessity. But so far, the question of whether it is an education or a technology form remains relevant. Because this question depends on the distance learning strategy, implementation tactics and the teachers’ readiness to work in distance learning. At present, it is defined by researchers and practitioners of distance education as follows:
Distance learning is a synthetic, integrated, social form of education in the widespread use of traditional and new information technologies and their technical means, used in the delivery of educational material, independent learning, communication between teacher and student.
Distance education is built for the same purposes as in the full-time education (if it is built on an educational-appropriate program), however, the material delivery form, the interaction form between teacher and students, as well as students, will be different. The basic didactic principles of distance education are the same as other education types, but the organizational principles of
distance education are different, they are specific to distance education, because the form features are expressed by the media capabilities of the Internet, its services (chats, forums, email, and videoconferencing). Specific features of distance education include modularity, mastering the role of a teacher, distance separation of subjects of the learning process, virtual cooperation of education, establishing their own control over the control exercised by the teacher, the use of modern special education technologies and tools.
The main areas of use of distance learning include:
professional development of pedagogical staff in certain areas;
preparation of schoolchildren for special subjects in passing examinations by expert methods;
preparation of schoolchildren for admission to educational institutions of a certain direction;
organization of school education for students;
additional training on interest;
– vocational training.
Comparing the forms of distance and distance learning with distance learning, it can be concluded that distance learning, learning based on the use of personal computers, video and audio technology, space and fiber optic technology can be seen as a new stage in the development of distance learning. Distance learning differs from the form of distance learning in that a significant part of the material is not independently mastered, but is carried out in constant communication with the teacher (telephone and Internet, online consultations in lectures and seminars). Also, the main differences between distance learning and distance learning are: - constant communication with the teacher through the use of telecommunications, the ability to communicate with him promptly on any questions that arise.
There are new types of educational institutions in developed countries. Such educational institutions became known as "open", "remote" universities, "electronic", "virtual" colleges. They have a unique organizational structure and use appropriate pedagogical methods and economic
In the world educational experience, the issues of differential and integrated education, in particular, the main directions of development of world education, the essence of the content of differential and integrated education as a pedagogical problem were studied and the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Integration (Lat. Integration-restoration, filling, merging. Integer-integral) is understood in the sense of synthesizing and uniting as a whole, making it a logical whole. Integration of the content of education means the synthesis of the content of interdependent, interdependent, expanding, deepening subjects, that is, the logical integration into a single whole.
2. Genetically integrated, interdisciplinary, interdependent, and ultimately complementary, expansive, and deepening is the form and level of content that is logically completed by synthesizing the content of subjects at least at the level of educational standards. A learning subject organized on the basis of integrative connection or an object studied in an integrated way requires the interpretation of events or processes in the form of an integrated system in terms of all-round connection and relations. This, in turn, allows you to form a highly qualified individual who is an independent thinker and creative person who meets the requirements of the present and the future.
3. Integrative education is not limited to requiring students to perform only analysis and synthesis operations; rather, it requires high-level thinking operations such as abstraction, algorithmization, categorization, and expression using conditional symbols, identification of causal relationships, analysis, synthesis, systematization, and modeling. These operations are carried out by distinguishing (stratifying) all the important aspects and features of the object under study, understanding the essence and content and generalizing them. This means that integration always develops on the basis of differentiation, which is the other side of it, or vice versa.
4. Integration and differentiation do not exist in isolation from one another, nor do they arise from one another, but they always appear at the same time as two sides of the object under study.
5. The authors of the integrated curriculum try to integrate all the adjacent curricula around the core subject and idea, which helps students to think creatively.
6. Developed countries recommend in-depth courses in specific subjects as well as the inclusion of integrated courses in the curriculum. For example, in Western European countries, 15 percent of students study physics in depth.
7. The main purpose of the use of step-by-step differentiation technology is to educate each student at the level of their capabilities and abilities, as a result of which each learner will have the opportunity to acquire knowledge and realize (apply) their personal potential.
1. Foreign experience shows that there is no room for haste in the process of restructuring the content of education. We believe that a more effective way in this area is to create curricula based on integration and specialization.
2. In the pedagogical process, an individual and differential approach to students is an important factor in the development of personality, because such an approach implies the ability to see the talents and abilities in children, to create conditions for personal development.
3. Differentiated differentiation of education should be widely used at different stages of the learning process: this should be done in the study of new material, differentiated homework, measurement of knowledge in the lesson, current check of mastery of the topic covered, independent and control work, work on errors, reinforcement lessons.
4. Often, when homework is requested in the classroom, gaps in students’ knowledge are sought. In fact, achievement, knowledge, skills need to be determined, because when homework is requested, the main task is to teach, help and support. At this point, it is necessary to use differential teaching methods when asking students for homework.
5. Differential education should be carried out in order to know the individual characteristics of students and, if necessary, to achieve a corrective effect, which requires teachers to study the individual abilities and learning opportunities (level of development of attention, thinking, memory, etc.) of students, the level of knowledge, skills, abilities in specific subjects.
6. If the differentiated educational process is organized taking into account the leading characteristics of the group of students, individual education is provided depending on the abilities and talents of each student. Therefore, in order to effectively organize differential education, it is necessary to create new versions of the program, textbooks, and didactic materials.
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