Contextual Implementation of Lexical Contaminated Neologisms
Safarova Umida Aliaskarovna
Candidate of Philology, Head of the Department of Languages, Faculty of Medicine and Education, Samarkand State Medical Institute, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract:In the article, the author examines the appearance of lexical units in the text, which are formed according to one word-building pattern and, accordingly, their location in it. All the presented in the context schemes of arrangement of common lexical units and one-root author's neologisms, in aggregate, characterize a mixed type of connection, which is characteristic of modern French literature. The author notes that when forming a new word, a native speaker relies not only on his idea of the subject, but also on the linguistic means and methods of their organization at his disposal. One of these ways of organizing linguistic material is the word- building pattern.
Keywords: Derivative formant, usual word, semantic correlation, contaminated neologism, compound word, lexical unit, structural cohesion.
In linguistics, considerable attention is paid to the study of word-formation, since the formation of words is the main source of enrichment and development of vocabulary. Word- formation has an utmost importance as a sphere of linguistic reality, a system of semantic, formal indicators, providing the replenishment of the vocabulary with new lexemes. Thanks to word- formation, which uses fixed linguistic resources (forming stems and word-building formants), the vocabulary of the language remains an open dynamic system.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
As you know, the reader reconstructs the message, ideas and images which underlie the text, “using his knowledge of the codes and code combinations of the language” . Word- formation, as a language subsystem, serving the task of forming nomination units, has a certain set of material means of modeling these units, as well as a choice of word-formation meanings expressed by using these means . One-word nominations can be created on the basis of already existing lexical units. The latter are taken as initial ones and serve as a motivating feature of a new nomination unit.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The linking of usual language unit with a new one-root derivative emerging before the
reader's eyes occurs quite often directly, that is, in one or in adjacent statements. This arrangement of the reviewed units not only creates favorable conditions for understanding the structure and semantics of a new word, but, which is no less important, most explicitly implements the connecting function of word-formative structures in the text:
1. Le docteur portа le verre à son nez, flaira, s’alluma ,huma et goûta, puis but et se tint le ventre à deux mains en lâchantsatrousse à doctoriser (VEJ,89).
2. ”L’oeilest le prince du monde”, décrétai-je un jour. On appelaitça: l’oeillisme (DD, 138).
3. Mais je croisqueceseraitmieux. Çarégulariserait la situation, commeditCélie.-Célie.- Célie! Parcequetucroisque la situation estrégularisable, toi? Tucroisque je peux vivre avec toi, être ta femme, mourirprès de toi…..? (SVP,139-140).
Contexts of "generation" clearly demonstrate the way of forming the structure and semantics of a new word. The basis of this process is, firstly, “the possibility of focusing on a certain model of relations between words” . Linking common lexical units and his own new formations with relations of derivational derivation, the author fills productive and widely used models of the word-formation system of the modern French language with specific lexical material:
N + -is + [er] -V: docteur n.m.-doctoriser V.
N + -isme –N: oeiln.m- oeillismen.m
V + - able – Adj: régulariser v.t. – régularisable adj.
Formal repetition of the same root inside an usual word and a newly formed one in the context appears as a manifestation of the “formal-structural type of cohesion”  of the text sequence.
The reviewed units are related to each other and relations of semantic correlation. The original usual word precedes the new formation in such a way that "the semantics of the derivative acts as a kind of development, continuation, clarification of the meanings of the given motivating units" .
In this case, a description of the meaning of a new formation is possible only through the “area of meaning” of the motivating usual unit. The semantic correlation of described words that contain the same root, in turn, underlies the deeper coherence of the text.
A comparative analysis of the meaning of the producing word and the neologism draws attention to the following regularity: with the polysemy of the motivating word, the neologism is correlated with only one of its meanings, which is realized in a specific speech act. The context, as the researchers rightly point out, converts the word of the language into the word of the text, limits the ways of its interpretation provided by the dictionary to the level corresponding to the current state of the text, ultimately to its semantic assignment. . Elucidation of the contextual meaning of a conventional generating word, its careful comparison with the semantics and structure of the neologism, allows adequately decode the meaning of the latter.
So, of the two main meanings of the usual word docteur n.m., given in the dictionary definition:I.Personne qui estpromue au plus haut gardeuniversitairedansunefaculté. 2.Personne qui exerce la médecineou la chirurgie (PR, 1983, p.563), the second is implemented in the context.
Accordingly, the meaning of the author's neologism doctoriser v.t.is understood as "performing the functions of a doctor, to treat".
The correlation of the new word-formative structure with the same-root usual lexical unit plays an important role in the given context and realizes its progressive horizontal connection.
Context with neologism oeillisme n.m. gives the following ratio of the elements of the text sequence, which are interesting for us. The noun oeil n.m. is used in context in the broad meaning of 'regard, vision, perception'. Accordingly, the neologism oeillisme n.m. differs in the abstractness of its meaning. The tendency of the modern French language to use the productive suffix -isme for the formation of nouns denoting philosophical doctrines, various art schools and, in this regard, the concepts peculiar to writers and artists, is noted by J. Dubois, citing derivatives as examples:
bovarisme n.m., syllabisme n.m. .
In the last reviewed above context, the usual verb régulariser is used by the writer with the direct object situation n.f. in its specific meaning 'rendreconforme aux règlements'. To create a lexical innovation, the author uses the adjective suffix –able, which, according to E.A.Khalifman, is combined only with the stems of transitive verbs to denote a passive ability ”. Two distinguished factors determine the structure and semantics of the neologism.
Let's look at other examples that reflect the progressive horizontal type of linking:
J’ai fait cette nuit un songe affreux: j’ai rêvé que je repassais mon bachot. Entendu, je ne l’étais pas seulement dans mon lit, mais baccalauréatement parlent : complètement (DS, 99).
The context has its own distinctive features. Usual noun bachot n.m. is defined in the dictionary as:bachot n.m.- 1856; de bachelier. Fam. (GR, 1985, v.l, p.796).The conversational familiar form of bachot n.m. associates with neologism baccalauréatement through association with the neutral noun baccalauréat n.m. Another striking feature of the context is the neologism itself. Its structure is a rare type of adverb formed with a noun suffix. The fewness of such adverbs in French are noted by many researchers.
It should also be noted that the introduction of the neoplasm into the context as a part of the phrase baccalauréatementparlant is systemically conditioned. In French, units can be distinguished, the formation of which is based on a given syntactic model, such as:
franchementparlant, sévèrementparlant, etc.
In all the examples of a text sequence that demonstrate a progressive horizontal type of connection, there is a correlation: a motivating usual word - a single-root author's neologism, containing a derivational formant in the form of an affix. Along with this ratio, the work also
recorded the participation of composite innovations in the described type of connection. Compound words, as the collected material shows, are widely represented in the language of modern French fiction. The very structure of a complex word contributes to a figurative reflection of the world, with inherent comparisons and comparative connections.
New formations-composites also differ in that the semantic relations of the components of a complex word are the “object of consciousness” of the speaker . Their structure and semantics can be provided in the text by relying on one or two common words, which also determines their direct participation in creating the cohesion of the text fragment. For instance:
-La sirène, c’estunanimal, enfinune femme-animal, qu’on a inventée (MJCO, 206).
Ah! Comme on pleurebiensurmoi-même! Le seulétalon stable, le plus vrai, cen’est pas l’étalon-or,c’estl’étalon-soi (DT,85-86).
Structural design of the composite femme-animal n.f. corresponds to the prepossession of the French language to complex words like N1 + N2. Two nouns, combined in a complex word, are able to convey a variety of lexical and semantic tasks. So in the reviewed neologism, both components clarify the meaning of each other, although the second one is the reference, connecting in the text sequence. In addition, a new compound word appears in the context as a secondary nomination of the same object:sirènen.f.-femme-animal n.f.
The neologism étalon-soi n.m., created by juxtaposing a noun and a pronoun, is a rare case for the composition of the French language. The pronoun soisituationally clarifies the meaning expressed by the first element of a complex word, conveys its qualitative characteristics. It should also be emphasized that the new composite is based in the context, firstly, on its two constituent conventional components and, secondly, on the conventional one-model noun étalon-or n.m. Such conditions for the introduction of a neologism not only make it possible to clearly trace the mechanism of word formation, but also lead to the establishment of a particularly intensive structural and semantic cohesion of the text sequence. Complex neologisms are capable of providing a horizontal lineal link of directly contacting statements:
Tout le monde travaille, c’estécrit. Il y a le travail-habitude, le travail-devoir, le travail- cadeau, (le riche donne du travail au pauvre), le travail d’enfant (maternité), le travail-Dieu (le pape) (DD, 200).
The presented neologisms structurally and semantically link the entire given passage. Each new word contains in its composition as the first component the noun travail n.m., which connects them with the previous utterance and the enclosed single root verb travailler. All composites are constructed according to the model N1 + N2 we have already noted, where the second component plays the role of a feature of the described object. Neologism travail-d'enfant n.m. is built
according to the N1 + prép model. + N2, which brings it even closer to a free phrase. All neologisms are marked by a high degree of the author's individuality, figuratively represent reality.
The textual explanations of the author facilitate, to a large extent, the perception of new lexical units by the recipient of information.
The collected material also indicates that in some cases, the progressive-horizontal type of communication of artistic speech is carried out through the presence of conversion education and telescopic neologisms in it:
Monféals’étaitlevétôtetavaitécrit le texte de six tracts et d’un discours. Après qoui ,ilétaitalléprendre un baintandisquesafamillefamiliaitautour de lui (DVB,30).
…Toniolliluiprend la tête à deux mains etimprime des secousses au chef d’Hanjpurcommes’ilescomptait le luidévisser. Le brahmane se met à brahmamercomme un putoishindou (DÇIP,16).
New verbs familierv.i., brahmamerv.i. actualized in contexts through the reliance on prepositively located conventional motivating lexical units famillen.f., brahmane n.m. According to this, the meaning of the first neologism can be interpreted as follows:s’occuper des affaires en famille, faire qch pour un des membres de la famille.
The verb brahmamer is used by the author as part of the phrase brahmamercomme un putoishindou( the phrase crier comme un putois, fixed in the dictionary as 'shout loudly, protest').
This observation and the entire context of word usage allows us to limit the meaning of innovation to: 'crier comme un brahmanehindou'.
The newly formed verbs belong to the first conjugation group, which once again confirms the observation of V.G. Gak that on the basis of the N˃V model, as a rule, verbs of regular conjugation are created . The fact of creating such verbs also testifies to the productivity of this type of word formation in modern French .
Another highlighted context is based on the connection between a motivating lexical unit and a contaminated neologism: Il se nettoyal’oreille avecl’oreilliculairequeDieuluiavaitdonné pour (RRM, 22).
Neologism oreilliculaire n.m. (oreille + auriculaire) carries out in the above mentioned statement a connecting function through the support on the motivating usual noun oreillen.f., which is a part of it as one of its constituent components.
CONCLUSIONS Thus, the conducted analysis of contexts indicates:
1. The ratio of the given neologisms with the prepositively located conventional components that underlie them, which in this case provide an intraphrasal connection. “… The novelty of such formations, as far as one can speak of it, is not of morphological nature, but of semasiological
nature; develops in the meaning of the words being joined ”;
2. In the case of the analyzed neologisms, one or two of the words being joined enter the context, anticipate the complex word, which makes it easier to perceive;
3. Opportunities for the author's neologisms of various word-formative structures to perform the function of communication in a literary text through a link with the previous motivating usual lexical unit in one or directly contacting statements.
4. The implementation of the cohesion of a text fragment through the indicated ratio of elements (the author's neologism is an usual motivating lexical unit in one or adjacent statements) is quite rare in French artistic speech. This fact, apparently, can be explained only by the fact that conventional lexical units, acting as actualizers of innovations, are designed to prepare the transition from the known, reproducible to the newly formed, unusual. However, if a neologism is introduced by the author "syntagmatically unprepared", then the further use of the same root usual lexical units becomes unnecessary, and the new words themselves are explicated based on the derivational model underlying them, or due to the entire contextual environment.
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