Family Causes of Aggressive Behavior of Adolescents.
BakhramovaAbiraAbdullaevna, Samarkand State University, Senior
Lecturer, Department of General Psychology
[email protected] Telephone: (97) 924 75 35
This article is devoted to the manifestation of aggressive behavior during puberty and the main methods of dealing with them.Adolescent aggression, a side effect of puberty, which occurs in response to a growing child's rejection of reality.
Keywords:inadequacy, aggressiveness, puberty, maximalism, growing up, violence, self- doubt, energy, learning, anger, family, upbringing.
Most psychologists put the influence of parents at the origins of inappropriate behavior in puberty children: their upbringing methods, behavior, attitude towards the child and each other.
And given the extremely heightened adolescent perception of the environment, any "mistakes" of relatives can trigger aggression.
The main family causes of teenage aggression include:
• Extremes in education.In this case, the most significant are the educational system and the level of attention given to the child. Moreover, both excessive attention (overprotection) and its lack will be equally dangerous.In the first case, the teenager rebelles, thus defending his right to freedom of choice - what to wear, with whom to communicate, etc.In the second, he chooses the tactics of aggressive behavior to attract the attention of parents.Similarly, a teenager can go against the rules set by strict parents or respond with aggression to permissiveness.
• Social status and standard of living.As in the case of upbringing, either poverty or the wealth of his parents can negatively affect the behavior of a teenager.So, for example, some children may be angry that their parents are not able to give him what he wants.It can be an expensive phone, a powerful computer, fashionable clothes, various leisure activities, etc.In the same way, unmotivated aggression can be provoked by the opposite state of affairs, when a child has absolutely everything he wants.In this case, a spoiled teenager simply considers himself superior to others, which gives him the right (as he thinks) to behave defiantly.
• Violence in family.Aggressive behavior by a teenager can be a response to the aggression he sees in the family.And here there can be several options for the development of events: the first - he instinctively tries to protect himself from an abusive parent or relative, the second - he copies him.No less destructive for the adolescent psyche can be ridicule and humiliation of his parents in front of other people.
• Jealousy.Sometimes a child in adolescence chooses a line of defiant behavior out of
jealousy.The subject of adolescent jealousy can be a new family member: the second child who has appeared in the family, the new chosen one of the mother (or the chosen one of the father), his (or her) children.
• Family traditions.It so happens that teenage aggression occurs due to the rejection of established traditions in the family.This can be the habit of spending free time, the manner of dressing, social circle, choice of profession or life partner, etc.With the help of aggressive behavior, the teenager tries to break these restrictions and go beyond them.
Biological causes of teenage aggression.
Changes within the child can significantly "spoil" the child's blood in puberty.Hormones are raging in him, his system of perception of the world is "bursting at the seams".And if the parents do not notice these changes in time, the child can “go downhill”.
The main biological causes of aggression in puberty are:
1.Youthful maximalism.In adolescence, a child is desperately looking for himself, his values and attitudes change very quickly, and the perception of the environment has two assessments - either bad or good, or black or white.There are no halftones in the life of a teenager.
Therefore, a new model of the child's behavior, not corrected in time by the parents, can turn into a protest against any inconsistency of reality with the "standards" invented by him.
2.Sexual maturation.The rampage of hormones also often affects the behavior of teenagers, making them out of control.Moreover, it is difficult to control them not only for parents or teachers. They themselves are not always able to pacify their attraction. Therefore, it is important to redirect this young energy on time and correctly into a useful channel - into dancing or sports.It is not only hormones that can turn a child into a tough teenager, but also his internal state. It can be formed in the process of growing up, inherited from genes or appear as a result of upbringing. In any case, it will be directly with the personality of the teenager.
The most important personal reasons for the formation of teenage aggression:
Lack of self-esteem.Quite often, behind the mask of an aggressive, world-defying teenager is a child who desperately needs support and understanding.It is the lack of confidence in himself, his strengths and abilities that makes him build walls of denial and opposition around himself.The same feeling pushes him to assert himself at the expense of the weaker or to deserve authority in front of the stronger.
Guilt.This factor can accompany the already mentioned self-doubt or be a consequence of it. Making a teenager feel guilty is easy. Moreover, he can shape it himself. But this does not mean that he admits it openly. Many adolescents disguise their feelings of inferiority with aggressive behavior.
Sensitivity.Another character trait that provokes in a supersensitive man during puberty a sharp reaction to even the most harmless things.
Pessimistic mood.Mistrust of people and life in general, a pessimistic view of things that
surround a teenager can significantly affect his behavior.
The feeling that he (or she) does not meet the expectations of the world around him (parents, loved ones, friends, teachers, and other people who matter to the child) can also make the teenager aggressive. In this case, internal aggression on oneself is projected onto others.
Situational causes of teenage aggression.
Often, aggression in adolescence can be triggered by a certain situation that has had a significant impact on the child's psyche.It can be an event related to the physiology of a teenager:
a serious illness or its consequences, trauma, physical defect that limit a full life.A feeling of inferiority in this case can result in aggressive behavior.
The destructive effect on the psyche of adolescents of certain content, which is "absorbed"
by children from the Internet, TV and computer games in unlimited quantities, has already been proven. The most dangerous are movies, games, videos, posts with aggressive content. Plunging into such an atmosphere, a teenager tries on the role of a negative, but cool hero, and carries it into real life. He chooses forceful problem-solving methods.
Also, the reason to show oneself "in all its glory" in a negative sense may be the desire to please the representative of the opposite sex or to impress her (him). If a child does not have a normal concept of relationships between the sexes, there is no correct example of such relationships, he himself develops a line of behavior that, in his opinion, will demonstrate his strongest sides.
Types of teenage aggression.
Depending on how the teenager's rebellion manifests itself, his defiant behavior can be divided into several types.
The main types of teenage aggression in terms of the direction of manifestation:
1.Overt aggression or hetero-aggression.Such aggressiveness is aimed at everything that surrounds a teenager - people, animals, things. It can manifest itself in the form of fights, hooliganism, vandalism, insults, humiliation, the use of profanity and defiant behavior. As a way to confront the world, teenagers can use smoking, alcohol, drugs, promiscuity, vagrancy.
2.Latent aggression or auto-aggression.If discontent and rejection is directed by a teenager inward, it is quite difficult to notice it outwardly. Such children do not clearly show their dissatisfaction with reality, but the accumulation of negative energy still finds a way out in the form of nervous breakdowns, depression, neuroses, somatic illnesses and even suicide.
Forms of teenage aggression by way of manifestation:
• Reactive aggression.It is hostility that manifests itself in response to the same hostility.
That is, it does not appear constantly, but "on occasion." The trigger here can be a rude attitude towards a teenager - in transport, school, shop, on the street. And the teenager simply cannot restrain himself from responding to rudeness with such behavior.
• Purposeful aggression.This is a conscious, constant behavior of a teenager, manifested in disrespect for others, rudeness, fights, defiant behavior. And it does not depend on whether they were rude to him or treated kindly. Most often, this method of self-expression is chosen by
children with natural inclinations of a leader, who simply cannot cope with their temperament without outside help.
Manifestations of teenage aggression.
The rebellion in the soul of a teenager depends on many reasons: the character of the child, the attitude of parents, friends, peers to him, living conditions, etc. Therefore, the manifestations of adolescent rebellion can be very different - from periodic harsh responses to a question or remark to absolutely immoral behavior or cruelty.
The main forms of manifestation of aggressive behavior in adolescents:
1.Physical form of aggression.The goal is to cause harm, pain, damage. Here, both inanimate objects and living beings can act as a victim. It manifests itself in the form of hooliganism, vandalism on various scales - from smashing dishes at home to destruction of amenities (monuments, benches, bus stops, etc.). In the worst case, aggression is directed at people, animals. This is the most dangerous form of teenage aggression, since adolescents have not yet fully formed the concept of responsibility, including for someone else's life.
2.Verbal form of aggressive behavior.A lighter manifestation of adolescent protest, but no less harmless. Because even verbal abuse and humiliation from other children can have dire consequences for the child's psyche. Verbal aggression can manifest itself in the form of arguments, denial, foul language, criticism of other people, threats, ridicule, malicious jokes, manifestations of hatred and resentment.
3.An expressive form of aggression.It manifests itself in brightly colored "tones", that is, in the form of physical movements (gestures, blows), pronounced facial expressions (grimaces, displeased facial expressions) and / or verbal expressions in raised tones or in the form of non- normative vocabulary.
4.Direct aggression.In this case, all the negativity of the adolescent is directed at a certain object, which causes these very negative feelings in him. She can be expressed physically and verbally.
5.An indirect form of aggressive behavior.This is a form when for some troubles, setbacks or just a bad mood of a teenager, his environment "pays" - things, objects, people, animals.
6.Hidden aggression.A protest that manifests itself in the form of ignoring requests and comments. In this case, the child is absolutely calm, but at the same time does not hear what is being told to him. And if he hears, he is in no hurry to carry out.
Ways to combat teenage aggression.
The method of overcoming adolescent aggression will depend primarily on the specific case - the characteristics of the child himself, the degree and type of aggression and the reason that caused it. Therefore, the approach to solving such a problem should be purely individual.
However, there are several universal rules of parenting behavior that will help not only correct the
situation, but can also be used as preventive measures to prevent aggressive behavior in a teenager.
The most effective tips for parents on how to cope with teenage aggression on their own:
-Reconsider your parenting criteria and behavior: it is often mistakes in the educational process or behavioral habits of parents that become the main reason for rebellious behavior in teenagers. Remember, no matter how your child speaks about you, you are his main reference point. If you want to make it better, start with yourself. Be a positive example.
- Be discreet and tolerant. Maintaining self-control even in the most critical situation in a family where there is a problem teenager can "kill two birds with one stone." Firstly, a calm and judicious analysis of the situation does not give an additional reason for aggression from the teenager. Secondly, this way of solving the problem shows the teenager that forceful methods are far from the only option to effectively resolve conflicts.
- Give your child the freedom to make decisions and be responsible for them. Of course, this advice also has its own nuances - such freedom should not become absolute. You as adults, experienced people still need to filter out safe solutions that can be “skipped” and unsafe solutions that could harm the child.
- Become your troubled teen's best friend. It is quite natural that not all children have an ideal set of qualities - intelligence, beauty, health, strength, ingenuity, talent. Therefore, support in your growing up exactly what he has. Praise him, support his endeavors, celebrate his achievements, analyze mistakes and failures. And don't just talk - spend more time with him outside the house. Organize joint recreation and leisure, support his hobbies, involve him in socially useful affairs, foster respect for elders.
- Wrap its seething energy back on track. Try to find something to do for your rebel that will help redirect his riot into a positive vector - hobbies, hobbies, sports, dancing, music, etc.
Ideally, this should be done in conjunction with the teenager himself. Find an alternative that will take him out of the Internet or the influence of a bad company. And it is possible that the first attempt at transforming adolescent energy will be successful. But this is not a reason to stop.
- Be sincere. Teenagers are extremely sensitive, therefore they feel insincerity. Do not forget that inattention to your child in adolescence can subsequently significantly complicate not only his life, but also the life of people who are nearby. Including the parents themselves.
Children in adolescence see themselves as adults, so treat and talk to them exactly as you would to adults of their own accord.
Conclusion:The family must adjust to the growing independence of the adolescent as they prepare themselves for an independent life. How well this mutual adaptation of parents and maturing children occurs depends to a greater extent on the style of parental behavior and family dynamics. American scientists Mednick and Moiler argue: “Genes play a more important role in the formation of aggressive behavior than the environment.
To confirm this, they analyzed the degree to which children inherit the traits of their biological and adoptive parents. If the adopted child is more like his biological parents, then we are dealing with the manifestation of biological determinants. Greater similarity between the child and his adoptive parents is evidence of the influence of the environment (for example, learning).
Psychogenetic evidence strongly suggests that genetic traits contribute significantly to inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. At the same time, one cannot but agree with the
opinion expressed, in particular, by H. G. Brunner: “The concept of one“ gene of aggression ”is unrealistic.
Aggressive adolescents, with all the differences in their personal characteristics and behavior patterns, differ in some common features. These features include the poverty of value orientations, their primitiveness, lack of hobbies, narrowness and instability of interests.These children, as a rule, have a low level of intellectual development, increased suggestibility, imitativeness, and underdevelopment of moral ideas. They are characterized by emotional rudeness, anger, both against peers and against surrounding adults.Such adolescents have extreme self-esteem (either maximally positive or maximally negative), increased anxiety, fear of widespread social contacts, egocentrism, inability to find a way out of difficult situations, and the prevalence of protective mechanisms over other mechanisms that regulate behavior.At the same time, among aggressive adolescents, there are also children who are intellectually and socially well developed. For them, aggressiveness acts as a means of raising prestige, demonstrating their independence, adulthood.
As we grow older, the role of the family weakens and the role of peers increases. The basic support that teens receive from peers is extremely important to their development.
There is something in adolescents that is not subject to change, something that is always with them - their need for friendship. Only friendship brings them back to life. Friendship is the
"road of life" for a teenager. Spontaneously emerging companies of peers unite adolescents with similar developmental levels and interests.The group reinforces and even cultivates deviant values and ways of behavior, has a strong influence on the personal development of adolescents, becoming a regulator of their behavior. In this context, there is the concept of "shift to risk" - this is the increase in the riskiness of group or individual decisions after group discussions in comparison with the initial decisions of group members.Each member of the group in the process of discussion revises his decision in order to bring it closer to the value standard. The sense of distance lost by adolescents, the sense of what is acceptable and unacceptable leads to unpredictable events.
There are special groups that are characterized by an attitude toward immediate gratification of desires, passive protection from difficulties, a desire to shift responsibility onto others.The adolescents in these groups are distinguished by a disdainful attitude towards learning, poor academic performance, failure to fulfill their duties: avoiding in every possible way to carry out any duties and assignments around the house, prepare homework, or even attend classes, such adolescents find themselves in the face of a large amount of "extra time." But for these adolescents, it is precisely the inability to spend their leisure time meaningfully is characteristic.The overwhelming majority of such adolescents do not have any individual hobbies, they do not study in sections and circles. They do not visit exhibitions and theaters, read extremely little, and the content of the books they read usually does not go beyond the adventure- detective genre. Wasted time pushes adolescents to search for new "thrill".Alcoholization and drug addiction are closely intertwined with the structure of the deviant lifestyle of adolescents.
Often adolescents by drinking alcohol, as it were, celebrate their "merits": successful adventures, hooligan acts, fights, petty thefts.Explaining their bad deeds, adolescents have the wrong idea about morality, justice, courage, courage. There is a chance for teenagers to contact bad company and become a juvenile delinquent.
Aggressiveness, cruelty, increased anxiety take on a stable character, usually in the process of spontaneous group communication that develops in companies. But this
communication, this system of relations, including those built on the basis of the cruel laws of asocial teenage groups, appears only as a situation of substitution with the rejection of a teenager into the world of socially significant relations of adults, as a situation of joint experience of incomprehensibility by them.Belonging to a company not only confronts an individual teenager with certain expectations, but also confronts him with the need to present evidence of his compliance and self-control. Obeying the laws of the group, sometimes as irrational as they are inevitable, adolescents commit incredibly cruel crimes in order, as it seems to them, to restore the vital connection of their “I” with the group.
But if a teenager has such a personality trait as aggressiveness, then his behavior strategies can be characterized as follows:
- such adolescents actively seek to defend their positions and interests, show emotionality and aggressiveness in communication, and behave impulsively;
- they are characterized by emotional acceptance of oneself, insufficient self-criticism and some complacency in assessing their own actions, the absence of a tendency to rethink their own qualities, the lack of expression of an attitude towards change itself;
- characterized by the integrity and determination of the image of "I", satisfaction with it, which determines egoism, the desire for self-sufficiency, leadership, without fear of causing a feeling of alienation; relations in the family and with school teachers are regarded by these children as the main areas of conflict;
- the aggressiveness inherent in protecting their interests provokes an escalation of the conflict and prevents a constructive solution to the problem.
"The manifestations of aggressiveness are promoted by the shortcomings of education carried out by various institutions of socialization, including not only the family, school, but also the mass media".
Aggressiveness in the personal characteristics of adolescents is formed mainly as a form of protest against the misunderstanding of adults, due to dissatisfaction with their position in society, which is manifested in the corresponding behavior. At the same time, the development of an adolescent's aggressiveness can be influenced by the natural characteristics of his temperament, for example, excitability and the strength of emotions, which contribute to the formation of such character traits as hot temper, irritability, and inability to restrain oneself.The modern teenager lives in a world that is complex in its content and tendencies of socialization. This is due to the type and rhythm of technical and technological transformations that impose new requirements on growing people. Teenagers, more than other age groups, suffer from the instability of the social, economic and moral situation in the country, having lost today the necessary orientation in values and ideals - the old ones have been destroyed, the new ones have not been created.Teenagers believe that most adults usually tell a lie, that now everyone lives for themselves, tries to somehow twist, deceive the other. In general, today in our society there is a serious deficit of positive impact on growing children. There is a “deformation” of the family, which does not fulfill such important functions as the formation of a sense of comfort and security in children.As a result, many adolescents are characterized by underdevelopment of moral ideas, consumer orientation, emotional rudeness, an aggressive way of self-assertion, which is associated, in particular, with increased suggestibility, imitation.It should be noted that many adolescents typically deliberately imitate certain manners, both of specific people and those stereotypes that are offered by various media. Hence the abundance of action films, detectives, etc. Provoking aggressive forms of behavior in adolescents, making it an adult in their own eyes and being a
means of demonstrating their importance.The discrepancy between the adolescent's aspirations of being connected with the awareness of his own capabilities and the position of a child dependent on the will of an adult causes a significant deepening of the self-esteem crisis, intensifying the quasi-needs and quasi-interests of a growing person. As he grows up, the character and characteristics of his vision of himself, the perception of others change, the motives and the degree of their adequacy to social needs change.
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