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View of Development of Social Responsibility-Based Mentor Training Management Model to Improve Mentoring Capabilities in International Voluntary Service Program


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Development of Social Responsibility-Based Mentor Training Management Model to Improve Mentoring Capabilities in

International Voluntary Service Program

Ketut Purwantoro1*, Fakhruddin2, Samsudi3, Amin Pujiati4,Diryo Suparto5

1, 2, 3, 4

UniversitasNegeri Semarang, Indonesia

5Universitas PancasaktiTegal, Indonesia

*[email protected] ABSTRACT

The development of a social responsibility-based mentor training management model to improve the mentoring ability of the international voluntary service program is essential in volunteering to encourage social change in society. The method used in this research is qualitative with a research and development approach based on needs analysis. This research is directed to visually and verbally produce products, designs, and processes. This research resulted in a model obtained from the planning, implementation, and evaluation of mentoring conducted on Dejavato, an NGO working in volunteerism. Problems that become obstacles can be used as input for developing a model for improving mentor competence. This study concludes that the feasibility of a social responsibility- based training management model is appropriate to support IVS volunteer mentoring activities and improve mentors' ability, both interpersonal skills and intercultural skills.


Development, Volunteering, Mentor Training, IVS Program Introduction

A volunteering program is a volunteer activity that does something voluntarily (not forced or required). A person who becomes a volunteer is generally of productive age. In a relatively short period, working without pay does activities that are not mandatory in producing products or services.

Volunteer activities include volunteering as teachers at schools, volunteering in the health sector by becoming a doctor or nurse assistant, volunteering as volunteers for natural disasters, volunteering in nursing homes by caring for the elderly, etc.

Rini (2013) research resultsstated that volunteer activities provide social benefits for these volunteers. Social benefits include fostering a cheerful spirit to help each other. Furthermore, according to Wilson (2000), it is stated that volunteers are people who do not have an obligation to support a party but encourage them to make a real contribution to activity and are committed to be involved in activities that require a willingness to sacrifice time, energy, thoughts, and materials forgiven to someone else.

Based on the description above, the competence of a volunteer can be defined as an individual who has a social spirit who is voluntarily willing to give his time, energy, material, and thoughts to help others and contribute to society regardless of the background, race, ethnicity, and religion of the person he is helping.

According to Pauline & Pauline (2009), it is stated that two motives that underlie someone participating in volunteering activities include giving something of value to the community and


serving the community. Furthermore, Katz in Pauline & Pauline (2009). Clary et al., (1998)also stated six volunteer motivations, including 1) Value, where volunteer activities can satisfy the desire to express concern for people in need. 2) Understanding, namely expressing the need for volunteers to gain knowledge. 3) Social, giving volunteers satisfaction to participate in volunteer activities that are considered reasonable by parties that are significant for volunteers, close friends, or the community. 4) Career, as an opportunity for volunteers to be bound into specific jobs voluntarily to support their future, 5) Protection, a person's need to participate in volunteer activities to reduce negative feelings associated with the functions of the human ego. 6) Enhancement, namely the needs of the volunteers' desire to get satisfaction related to self-development.

International volunteer activities are not yet widely known and understood by the wider community.

In contrast, in other places, especially in developed countries, volunteer exchange activities are well known and entrenched and have become part of the learning process in society.

Volunteering activities are based on the idea that working together on a joint program is one of the most effective ways to create friendship and understanding. The organized programs serve as a basis for dialogue, opportunities to work according to each person's abilities, and practice learning while working and living together for seven to 12 months. In such situations, national and international volunteers experience new realities challenging their customs and beliefs. CCIVS UNESCO research proves that IVS provides increased self-confidence, strengthens personal competence, interpersonal and social skills, cultural understanding (intercultural skills). Volunteers learn that they can create change through active participation in the IVS program.

Several studies reveal that social capital is essential for volunteering because volunteering involves participation, cooperation, and trust in people (Voicu et al., 2004:122). Becoming a volunteer can also benefit and expand networks (networking) at national and international levels.

International Voluntary Service (IVS) works based on the spirit of reciprocal cooperation (reciprocity) at the international level between non-governmental organizations / NGOs (non- governmental organizations) and non-profit (not for profit). IVS organizations are networked, have ethical work standards built democratically, and work concerning cultural and organizational diversity. Volunteer exchange activities are held locally and implemented globally or internationally.

Volunteers apply through the sending organization in their home country and are accepted by the organization in the destination country.

In implementing IVS activities, destination country organizations that accept foreign volunteers carry out preparations and steps as hosts (recipients) in the form of a selection of volunteer candidates both administratively and interviews, finding locations for volunteer activities, providing training on arrival, monitoring, mentoring, final evaluation and activity report generation.

A foreign volunteer who carries out activities in Indonesia will undoubtedly experience the challenges of culture shock, especially to adapt to the environment, geographical conditions, culture, food, weather, and understand the character of local people. According to Allen et al., (2001), the active process of dealing with change while in an unfamiliar environment is a form of culture shock.

Oberg states that culture shock is anxiety that arises due to the loss of familiar symbols of social relations in (Kim & Gudykunst, 1988).

From the research results above, it can be concluded that to adapt well to different conditions. A volunteer requires a process of both motivations from within the volunteer and the support of the environment where the volunteer is located. One of the most critical support from the background is the presence of a mentor (mentor) while a volunteer is carrying out his duties.


One of the voluntary organizations in Indonesia is the Dejavato Foundation, an NGO that is engaged in volunteering in Indonesia. The Dejavato Foundation is a member of CCIVS UNESCO (Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service), ICYE Federation (International Cultural Youth Exchange), NVDA (Network for Voluntary Development in Asia), official partner of the Alliance of European Voluntary Service Organizations. IVS programs are held in the form of short-term volunteer/workcamp programs (1 - 2 weeks), mid-term volunteer programs (1 - 4 months), and long-term volunteers (5 - 12 months).

International volunteers who came to Dejavato to carry out volunteer activities and were placed in partner institutions in Indonesia as many as 220 institutions located in the provinces of Aceh (1 institution), North Sumatra (2 institutions), West Sumatra (1 institution), Bengkulu ( 1 institution), Riau (1 institution), Palembang (1 institution), Lampung (4 institutions) DKI Jakarta (3 institutions), West Java (3 institutions), Central Java (166 institutions), East Java (12 institutions), Yogyakarta (8 institutions), Bali (9 institutions), North Sulawesi (1 institution), South Sulawesi (5 institutions) and Papua (2 institutions).

Although the number of Dejavato partner institutions is 220, not all accept foreign volunteers simultaneously. The acceptance of foreign volunteers usually depends on the holiday season in developed countries, which generally starts in the summer between July to September and Winter (Winter) between December and February. Outside of the holiday season, it is sporadic for foreign volunteers to come and even none at all because the volunteers have their activities, namely working or studying in their home country.

They were judging from the number of foreign volunteers in Dejavato, mid-term program volunteers, and long-term foreign volunteers who come to Indonesia an average of 25 people per year. In comparison, the short-term program/workcamp is 200 people per year. The number of workcamp volunteers is much higher because the program is group, short, and according to the holiday season for foreign volunteers. Meanwhile, the number of mid-long term volunteers is less because there are not many foreign volunteers who can leave lectures or work in their home countries for a long time.

Partner institutions in Indonesia can accept foreign volunteers depending on the internal readiness of the institution and the schedule of internal activities. Mostof Dejavato's partners are schools that usually will not take foreign volunteers if the school is undergoing a school exam period and school holidays. Often, the four-season state holiday schedule is quite different from that of schools in Indonesia. It is often inappropriate and makes foreign volunteers unable to be accommodated.

In carrying out activities as the coordinator and host of the IVS program, Dejavato also carried out the following steps: 1) conducting a selection of foreign volunteer candidates in the form of document selection and interviews, 2) preparing the location of volunteer activities, 3) preparing accommodation and transportation for volunteers, 4) providing training on arrival, 5) monitoring and mentoring, 6) preparing local mentors, 7) conducting mid-term evaluations, 8) conducting final evaluations, 9) making reports.

Before the placement of volunteers to the project site, Dejavato coordinates with the school institution to request and appoint a mentor in charge of managing volunteering activities during internships at the school or college. The mentors selected are representatives of the institutions where volunteers carry out pieces of training. These mentors are usually teachers, staff, or employees willing to work voluntarily by taking their time, energy, thoughts, and even materials to assist foreign volunteers during their stay in Indonesia.


Roberts (1998) stated that mentoring is a natural process where one person has more skills and experience serving as a role, model, sponsor, teacher, consultant, motivator, and friend to someone who is considered to have less ability and expertise. Furthermore, in his research, Windayani et al., (2018) states that mentoring is a learning process where a mentor can make mentees or previously dependent participants independent.

Based on the description above and related to the IVS program, the role of a mentor is significant in helping volunteers immediately run their programs well, adapt to their environment, and understand conditions that are different from their country of origin. A mentor needs to serve wholeheartedly, sincerely, and responsibly to volunteers to immediately become independent while living in Indonesia. A mentor at Dejavato's partner institution does not get a fee incentive. Still, mentors must work professionally, skilled, reliable, trained, and voluntary as a sense of social responsibility towards the assisted volunteers, partner institutions, and Dejavato.

Training has a reasonably positive influence on a person's competence as the results of research conducted by Wicaksono (2020)achieved by involving 59 tax centre volunteers at the University of Jember by distributing questionnaires, and it was found that partially and simultaneously, competence and training had a significant effect and positive on work performance. So if there is an increase in competence and training, it will also increase work performance. Vice versa, if there is decreased incompetence and training, it will also be followed by a reduction in work performance.

59.8% of the changes that occurred in the work performance of the Tax Center Volunteers at the University of Jember were well explained by competence and training.

The Dejavato Foundation has made a general guide to being a mentor and a brief guide on mentoring obligations for partner institutions that accept foreign volunteers. Based on researchers' observations from June to December 2019 at 10 Dejavato partner institutions, the implementation of mentoring has not been carried out optimally. Partner institutions are more focused on accepting foreign volunteers to provide better opportunities for students, cadets, and staff to practice conversation in English. In addition, partner institutions want foreign volunteers to be considered native speakers to increase the institution's credibility because it can increase the accreditation value and quality of the institution. According to Maula (2017), the strategic steps implemented by the principal in improving the quality of the Mandarin language program at SMA Nurul JadidPaitonProbolinggo are as follows;

boarding language program students, holding extra-curricular activities, bringing in native speakers, building a mandarin library, holding a Mandarin teacher MGMP, establishing relationships with Chinese language institutions, and providing Chinese language trainers for schools.

Based on the background of the problem above, the researcher feels the need to develop an effective mentor training model and improve mentors' competence. Mentor training management is a solution to overcome issues in mentor activities in volunteer mentoring. Mentors are obliged to guide and supervise activities, arrange activity schedules, create activity programs, achieve outputs/results of volunteering program activities. The training model that will be developed using a social responsibility approach is a training model that emphasizes the formation of a mentor's character in carrying out his duties. Mentor training based on a social responsibility approach is carried out to support the realization of the professionalism of a mentor. The development of this training model is a solution to improve the quality of mentor training in Dejavato.


Literature Review

According to (Wexley Kenneth & Yulk, 1992;Mangkunegara, 2009:43) argued that "Training and development are terms is referring to planned efforts designed to facilitate the acquisition of relevant skills, knowledge, and attitudes by organizations members." Development focuses more on improving the decision making and human relations skills and the presentations of a more factual and narrow subject matter.''

Walley's opinion states that training refers to planned efforts that are carried out to achieve mastery of employees' skills, knowledge, and attitudes. According to Sudjana, (2011), training is an overall activity to improve and develop knowledge and experience, work attitudes, and work ethic. These skills are needed to be able to work more productively and effectively.

Training is an ongoing effort to improve one's competence and the performance of an organization.

Training provides space for learners to upgrade their knowledge and skills. According to Supriyanto, (2021), training is designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their current job. Veithzal also stated that training is an activity to improve performance in the future.

Rachmawati et al., (2021) suggests that training is a short-term educational process using systematic and organized procedures so that operational employees learn technical knowledge and skills for specific purposes. In this sense, training is a series of activities for mentors to improve their knowledge and skills.

(Allen et al., 2001) suggests that training specifically focuses on providing specific skills or helping employees improve their performance deficiencies. In this case, the organization needs training in the future based on the lack of employee performance in the past as a basis for evaluating performance improvements in the future.

According to Chatigny (2022), training is how people achieve specific abilities to help achieve organizational goals. Therefore, this process is tied to various organizational goals, and training can be viewed narrowly or broadly. On a limited basis, training provides employees with specific and recognizable knowledge and skills used in their current job. Sometimes there is a line between training and development, with development being broader in scope and focusing on the individual to achieve new abilities that are useful both for his current job and future.

Meanwhile, Gao et al., (2021) defines training as part of a human investment to improve work skills and abilities and employee performance. Training is usually carried out with a curriculum tailored to the position's needs, given relatively quickly, to equip a person with job skills.

The general objectives of the training are as follows: (1) to develop skills so that work can be completed more quickly and more effectively, (2) to develop knowledge so that work can be completed rationally, and (3) to develop attitudes, thereby creating a willingness to cooperate with fellow employees and with management (leaders).

In developing training programs, so that training can be helpful and bring benefits, systematic stages or steps are needed. There are three training stages: the needs assessment stage, the training implementation stage, and the evaluation stage. Or in other terms, there is a training planning phase, a training implementation phase, and a post-training phase.

Management is a process or series of activities that are interconnected with one another, although not always following a systematic sequence. The series contains activities that move, guide, direct and supervise others in doing something, both individually and together. Thus, management can also be seen as a social process which is a formal process of cooperation between two or more people, which


is carried out with the help of sources, both human and non-human sources, with specific methods that are considered effective and efficient and refer to the achievement of goals. Previously set.

Management needs to facilitate the achievement of human goals in organizations, including learning organizations. Management is an essential part of an organization to regulate everything related to organizational life. In implementing management, management functions are needed, which are steps that control how the performance is to be a direction for how the management process can run.

So it can be concluded that successful management is management that has a good planning. These activities have clear directions and goals, thus getting the expected learning achievement.

Activities in training management include: setting targets, planning, implementing, checking/supervising, and developing education and training. Planning is determining the training needs and their recommendations. Develop training patterns and programs according to the suggestions and training methods and facilities. Implementation is organizing and carrying out exercises. Checking/supervision is assessing the results of the practices carried out and knowing what needs to be perfected. Research and development are developing training methods according to knowledge and experience to achieve work productivity.

The current concept of training is to use an informal approach. According to Mathis & Jackson (2008), informal training offers a different idea: more flexible, independent, accessible, and the costs incurred are small. Training activities are related to self-directed learning.

The characteristics of the informal approach are: 1) an approach to what a person can do as a result of training (output and outcome), 2) training activities can be done anywhere and are more flexible, 3) use more ice breakers or team building activities, 4) puts more emphasis on practice than theory, 5) emphasizes the ability to transfer new knowledge and skills.

Education and training are two interrelated things. The essence of the educational process is the teaching and learning process which involves several components of education such as curriculum, teachers, students, teaching materials, learning methods. Meanwhile, training activities are carried out to improve skills and increase knowledge. Training management is an activity or series of activities in the form of a collaborative business management process of a group of people members of a training organization to achieve predetermined training objectives. The success of training management can be measured from the outputs and outcomes in the standards that have been set.

The meaning of the training management model in this study is as a training program management design that involves identifying aspects of training needs and objectives, training design planning, determining training methods, preparing training syllabus or materials, training implementation, and training evaluation as a follow-up to training activities that have been carried out. The training management model is needed to describe the performance of management functions in the training field, including planning, organizing, implementing, and evaluating.

Social contract theory emerged and developed, characterized by rationalism and humanism. Earlier thinkers vaguely hinted at social contract theory, such as Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and JJ. Rousseau both discussed the social contract in their political analyses. They differ on who takes the authority and the operation of the following administration. The reason for the difference is related to personal background and interests.

The emergence of this social contract theory is marked by rationalism, realism, and humanism, in which humans are the centre(Rachmawati et al., 2021). If examined later, in social contract theory, humans are the centre of the view and the authorities in making mutually agreed upon arrangements to maintain the stability of state security. The emergence of this theory was influenced by the thought


of the Enlightenment or Renaissance. Three kinds of social contract theory were formulated by three prominent political theorists of the Enlightenment who lived in almost the same era, namely Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. These figures have the same thought, basing the agreement on the existence of human nature.

Hobbes stated that humans are evil by nature, and their desire is unlimited for power, wealth, and honour. To fulfil this infinite desire, humans fight against each other. Finally, humans try to avoid war conditions by making social contracts, entering into agreements, relinquishing their rights, and transferring them to some people or institutions. The person or institution is given full rights, and the community no longer has the right to question the ruler's sovereignty.

From there, humans enter into a social contract. Each member of the community gave up some of their rights. According to Locke, there are three parties to this social contract: the creator of the trust, the people entrusted with the confidence, the government, and those who receive the benefits from the granting of the faith, the government supervisor, and the parliament. In this case, the government or the power holder is responsible to the parliament with limited authority. The public's political obligation and obedience to the government only lasts as long as the government is still trusted. If the relationship of trust is broken, the government has no basis for imposing its authority.

Social contract theory is the basis for the social responsibility approach because it is considered an ethical point of view that assumes that moral decisions must be based on ethical norms to determine whether the steps taken are right or wrong. This view is based on the social contract theory, which assumes that it is based on a sense of ethical responsibility.

The values and norms influence mentors' decisions and actions that they adhere to. The ethical standards of a mentor affect the actions and decisions of the organization. However, it must be admitted that certain circumstances being faced have a considerable influence on the behaviour of a mentor.

Andragogy is a model of the learning process of students consisting of adults. Andragogy is also known as the technology of involving adults in learning. The learning process can occur well if the learning methods and techniques involve students. Self-involvement (student ego) is the key to success in adult learning. For this reason, lecturers as learning managers should be able to help students: 1) define the learning needs of students, 2) formulate learning objectives, 3) participate in taking responsibility for planning and preparing learning experiences, 4) participate in evaluating the process and results of learning activities. . Thus, lecturers must involve the involvement of students as optimally as possible in learning activities.

Neider et al. (2021) suggests that there are several procedures that lecturers or educators must take in managing learning activities, including 1) creating a conducive atmosphere for learning through collaboration in planning learning programs, 2) finding learning needs, 3) formulating objectives and suitable materials according to learning needs, 4) designing learning patterns in some learning practices for students, 5) carrying out learning activities using appropriate learning methods, techniques, and means, 6) assessing learning activities and re-diagnosing learning needs for further learning activities.

Following its development, adults are assumed to have mature learning readiness because they have to face their roles as students, workers, parents, organizational leaders. Adult learners are ready to learn what they need to know to deal effectively with their life situations. If in a child learning readiness is caused by academic demands or biological needs, then in adults, learning readiness is more determined by the demands of development and changes in tasks and social roles.


Andragogy learning theory is the basis for developing a mentor training model because mentoring training activities are carried out by adults who learn about the things they need to know to solve problems effectively. Therefore, the training material needs to be adapted to the needs tailored to the social role tasks.

The definition of responsibility can be interpreted as a state of being obliged to bear everything. If anything happens, it can be prosecuted, blamed, sued, or means the right that functions to accept the burden due to its attitude by other parties.

According to Sadeghi Moghadam et al. (2021), social responsibility is a commitment to work ethically and legally to realize sustainable development.

So, responsibility is an act that each individual carries out based on one's obligations or calling. That attitude shows that someone has a very high caring and honest nature.

Responsibility is natural, meaning that it is part of human life, that every human being must be burdened with guilt. If he does not want to be responsible, other parties impose that responsibility.

Thus, accountability can be seen from the party's side, who acts and the other party's interests.

Social responsibility is an approach whereby companies integrate social concerns in their business operations and business interactions with stakeholders based on voluntary and partnership principles.

Implementing social responsibility consistently in the long term will foster a sense of community acceptance of the company's presence. Such conditions can, in turn, provide business economic benefits to the company concerned. Many companies have begun to realize the importance of carrying out social responsibility, although many have not implemented it correctly.


Development research is a research process to create or improve a product. The research and development approach isused to conduct research, development, and product testing based on needs analysis. Development research is directed to produce products, designs, and processes. The model is defined as a representation of both visual and verbal.

The research design in this study used the principles and steps of Borg and Gall. This research model is a method for developing and testing a product. Educational products are in the form of material objects in books, teaching materials, films, and teaching methods. The process can include learning objectives, training methods, curriculum, and evaluation (Borg and Gall, 2003; Supriyanto, 2020).

By not reducing the meaning of the ten steps, the researcher categorizes into three steps of development researchers as Gao et al. (2021) modifies it into three stages of development research, namely: 1) preliminary study stage as needs and contents analysis, 2) development stage as design, development and evaluation, 3) feasibility testing stage

The development as above is expected to produce products as a function of creation and innovation to improve the quality of mentor training and produce products in the form of a social responsibility- based mentor training management model guide. The development characteristics are: 1) the product developed is based on problems encountered in the field during the implementation of the IVS mentoring program in 10 schools or educational institutions that collaborate with Dejavato, namely the Aviation Polytechnic (Poltekbang) Medan, the Blind Education Foundation (Yapentra) Medan, SD 1 Tanjungsari Lampung, Polytechnic of Naval Science (PIP) Barombong Makassar, SD MarsudiUtami Semarang, TK Nabila Petir Semarang, SMPN 2 Semarang, SMPN 1 MijenDemak, Indonesian Railways Polytechnic (PPI) Madiun and PoltekbangBanyuwangi 2) developed through design and testing, 3) the trial was carried out in three stages, namely expert and practitioner testing,


limited field testing, and expanded field testing, 4) the resulting product was a social responsibility- based mentor training management model guide.

Researchers also carried out a literature review by establishing concepts and supporting theories in developing a mentoring model that could improve mentors' ability in volunteer mentoring. The literature study was conducted to find out the factual model of mentor training as the basis for developing mentor training management through a qualitative approach to formulating the mentor training model that Dejavato has applied. The literature review was carried out with the following activities: 1) analyzing the content of the mentor training syllabus that had existed previously in Dejavato, 2) analyzing indicators and sub-materials for developing mentor training, 3) analyzingsourcebooks to find the basis for the concept of developing a mentor training management model as the basis for model development. Social responsibility-based mentor training.

Furthermore, preliminary research activities and needs analysis are carried out. In this activity, primary research uses approaches, data collection techniques, and analysis of qualitative and quantitative methods. This research was conducted at ten higher education institutions that have collaborated with Dejavato for the implementation of the IVS program, namely the Aviation Polytechnic (Poltekbang) Medan, the Blind Education Foundation (Yapentra), Medan, SD 1 Tanjungsari Lampung, Sailing Science Polytechnic (PIP) Barombong Makassar, SD MarsudiUtami Semarang, Nabila Petir Kindergarten in Semarang, SMPN 2 Semarang, SMPN 1 MijenDemak, Indonesian Railways Polytechnic (PPI) Madiun and PoltekbangBanyuwangi

The number of mentors involved isten mentors and ten volunteers. The competencies of the mentors analyzed are: 1) the ability to communicate using English, 2) the ability to coordinate activity programs, 3) the ability to communicate actively with volunteers, 4) the ability to solve problems if there are obstacles, 5) manage activities during the joint IVS program. Volunteers.

Data Analysis

The draft of developing a social responsibility-based mentor training management model due to the revised expert test was tested on a limited basis to a small group of 10 mentors involved in the IVS program. This little trial phase is used to practice the development of a social responsibility- based mentor training management model that has been evaluated in an expert test.

The mentor training management model's design was revised after a limited trial was retested through an expanded problem of 15 mentors and stakeholders involved in the IVS program. At the same time, the expanded test was carried out at the Dejavato office in Semarang on April 2, 2021.

The extended trial was carried out to practice and revise a social responsibility-based mentor training management model. The research design used the ''One Group Pretest-Postest Design'' experimental model in the expanded attempt. As in the following image:

Figure 3.2

An experimental method with ''One Group Pretest-Postest Design'' design






Information :

Q1 is the pretest score (before joining the training) Q2 is the post-test score after attending the training

X is a treatment in implementing a social responsibility-based mentor training management model.

The data obtained during the expanded trial were used as the basis for entering the model design evaluation stage.

The trial results' social responsibility-based mentor training management model was expanded and then improved and examined for its strengths and weaknesses. Improvements are improvements to get the final developed model. The final model obtained from the revised validation results of the extended trial was determined as the final model.

Sources of data and research subjects on the development of a social responsibility-based mentor training model were selected using proportional sampling. The use of this technique is based on several considerations, including: (1) time and cost efficiency of research, (2) ease of conducting research (geographical aspect).

The data sources and research subjects include (1) research data sources at the preliminary study stage, 2) research subjects at the factual model development stage as the basis for developing social responsibility-based mentor training models, 3) research subjects at the mentor training model validation stage (solid) as the basis for developing a social responsibility-based mentor training model.

Sources of data and research subjects at the preliminary stage are as follows; 1) two IVS program coordinators, 2) one Dejavato manager, 3) three practitioners/organizers of mentor training at Dejavato, 4) ten mentors, 5) two academic experts, and policymakers, and 6) three validators consisting of academic experts and practitioners to assess the feasibility of the model, 7) document the implementation of mentor training activities that have been carried out in Dejavato.

Sources of research data in the preliminary stage include IVS program mentors and IVS program coordinators. The data sources are as follows:

1) IVS program coordinator

2) Dejavatomanager to obtain data on the implementation of mentor training conducted at the Dejavato office using interview techniques and interview guidelines. This data can be used as a data validity test (data triangulation).

3) Mentor Dejavato to obtain data on the implementation of IVS volunteer mentoring activities as measured by mentoring (learning planning, performance, and evaluation).

4) Volunteers to obtain information about their perception of mentors during mentoring in the context of running the IVS program.

5) To test the validation of models and guidebooks using expert judgment (experts) are carried out in two ways, (1) in writing using a closed questionnaire technique for further scoring, (2) directly through FGDs involving experts/experts.

6) For empirical validation test through FGD involving experts and user models

7) To test limited, namely to test the feasibility, Dejavatoinvited several model practitioners and users.

8) For the expanded test, namely testing the feasibility of the model by inviting Dejavato and IVS stakeholders

The data sources for the preliminary stage are ten mentors and ten volunteers; the research subjects in the limited trial phase are ten mentors. The research subjects at the validation stage of the training model include developers and a team of experts. The developer of the mentor training model design


complements the mission of developing a social responsibility-based mentor training model as a researcher assisted by a group. In contrast, the model design validator is an expert team of 3 education experts.

Data collection techniques are an essential factor for the success of the research. Data collection is a technique used by researchers to obtain the necessary data from resource persons, namely ten foreign volunteers and ten mentors.

The preliminary stages of data collection techniques in this study utilize questionnaires, interviews, observations, and document studies conducted between July and December 2019 at the Aviation Polytechnic (Poltekbang) Medan, the Blind Education Foundation (Yapentra) Medan, SD 1 Tanjungsari Lampung. , Polytechnic of Naval Science (PIP) Barombong Makassar, SD MarsudiUtami Semarang, TK Nabila Petir Semarang, SMPN 2 Semarang, SMPN 1 MijenDemak, Indonesian Railways Polytechnic (PPI) Madiun and PoltekbangBanyuwangi According to Sugiyono (2015: 92) that: Research is a data collection tool used to measure the observed natural and social phenomena. Thus, research instruments are used to find complete information about a problem, a phenomenon. The research instruments used in this study were questionnaire guidelines, interview guidelines, observation guidelines, and document study guidelines.

The character of a research instrument is validity and validity. Therefore, the agency developed in this study was validated using predictive validity. Prediction validity is done by consulting the model concept, curriculum and training syllabus, and social responsibility-based mentor training management manual to model experts in training management.

The research subjects at the development stage were: 1) 3 mentors for testing the research instrument, 2) 3 Dejavato IVS program coordinators, and 3) 10 mentors and 3 IVS coordinators. The research subjects at the validation stage of the training model include developers and a team of experts. The social responsibility-based mentor, the training management model developer, is a researcher and is assisted by a group. In comparison, the model design validator is a team of experts consisting of 3 management and training experts. Instrument validation was carried out on March 22, 2021, with training model experts.

The data analysis technique used to process the data collected from expert reviews uses qualitative descriptive. This data analysis technique is carried out by grouping information from qualitative data in the form of input, feedback, criticism, and suggestions for improvement contained in the questionnaire. This data analysis is used to revise the product. Data analysis in qualitative research can be done by: (1) data analysis in the field, this method is carried out when data collection activities in the field are in progress, (2) this method is carried out repeatedly, and the data is retested, (3) data analysis carried out after data collection is complete.

Analysis of the data used in this study using interactive data analysis from Miles and Huberman in Sugiono consists of data reduction activities, display data, and conclusion data. Data reduction is a process of classifying and organizing so that conclusions can be drawn and verified by collecting data in the field in observations in handwriting and documentation.

Data display is the activity of exposing the results of data reduction. Data reduction is defined as the process of selecting, focusing attention on simplification, abstracting, and transforming the raw data that appears and written records in the field. Data reduction in qualitative research occurs continuously during the data collection process, either in summaries, coding, tracing themes, and making partitions or writing memos. The data that has been reduced is then sorted and presented in the form of narratives, tables, pictures so that it can be interpreted. The conclusion is made by


compiling an analysis of the existing data by using concepts in the form of a narrative and making propositions from the assembled description.

Conclusion or concluding, namely making conclusions to describe systematic patterns or plots about events. In this study, the researcher carried out a series of activities which included: 1) compiling data analysis using concepts in narrative form, 2) making propositions from the compiled narratives, 3) propositions being used as the basis for developing models.

Quantitative data analysis is used to support research results to clarify descriptive data. Quantitative data analysis was conducted to identify and analyze the questionnaire data. The determination of the maximum score to calculate the percentage with a weight of 100% and a minimum score of 0%, then the respondent's score is expressed in the form of a percent. The following formula is used:

NP=R/SM Information:

NP = Percent value sought R = Raw score

SM = Ideal maximum score of the questionnaire

Quantitative data analysis was used to test the effectiveness of the developed model. Quantitative data analysis techniques were carried out at the model validation stage using the t-test. T-test was conducted to determine the model's effectiveness by comparing the respondents' responses before and after the development of the model.

The validity of this data is closely related to scientific responsibility for the research findings. In proving the validity of the data, the researcher uses techniques including (1) prolong engagement, by extending participation in the field, where the researcher is in the field from July to December 2019 intending to obtain accurate data, the data can be accounted for, (2) persistent observation, the persistence of field observations was carried out at the beginning of the observation, namely in July 2019 and focused on the focus of the problem in the field, (3) triangulation, a technique for checking the validity of the data by utilizing something other than the data to check or compare data, and checking results—then compared with previous theories.

The validity of the data is the standard of truth of research data, emphasizing the data/information obtained in the field. To avoid errors or errors in the data that has been collected, researchers need to check the validity of the data. Checking the validity of the information is based on the criteria for the degree of confidence (credibility). Sugiyono (2015:270) suggests that: "Test the credibility of the data or trust in the data from qualitative research results, among others, carried out by extending observations, increasing persistence in research, triangulation, discussions with colleagues, negative case analysis and member checks."

One of the things that researchers use in testing the validity of the data is the triangulation technique which is a technique for checking the validity of the data based on something outside the data to check or as a comparison against existing data. The truth of the qualitative data in this study was tested through data triangulation. According to Moleong (2012: 330), "Triangulation is a technique of checking the validity of data that utilizes something other than the data for checking purposes or as a comparison of the data that utilizes the use of sources, methods, investigators, and theories."This study uses triangulation techniques with sources, methods, and theories.

Triangulation of sources means comparing and checking the trustworthiness of information obtained through different times and tools. In this source, triangulation is done by comparing the data obtained by researchers from each informant. Information obtained from the IVS program coordinator,


Dejavato manager, and IVS volunteers were compared with information obtained through interviews with mentors. The results of the data validity test through triangulation of sources prove that there is a similarity and consistency of answers.

The triangulation method is done by comparing information or data in different ways. In qualitative research, researchers use interviews, observations, and document studies. To obtain the truth of reliable information and a complete picture of certain information, researchers can use document, observation, interview, and questionnaire techniques to check its integrity. In addition, the researchers also used different informants to check the truth of the information. Triangulation at this stage is carried out if the data or information obtained from the subject or research informant is doubtful.


This information collection is in the form of a needs analysis that aims to identify factual models that have been implemented in Dejavato, which include: 1) analysis of pre-existing training management and management components tailored to the needs analysis of mentors and volunteers, 2) software analysis to develop models and carried out by identifying volunteer mentoring activities at the internship place with IVS volunteers and, 3) analyzing the obstacles and obstacles faced during volunteer mentoring activities.

Researchers also carried out the literature review by establishing the concepts and supporting theories in developing a social responsibility-based training management model, including training management theory, mentoring social responsibility theory. In this theory, there is development mediation, including Crawford's (2010) theory which suggests that mentoring is an interpersonal relationship in the form of caring and support for someone experienced and knowledgeable with someone who is less skilled or has less experience. Mediation in this theory is found in the meaning of mentoring, not only about interpersonal relationships but also in the social responsibility in carrying out their duties by building interpersonal skills and intercultural skills between mentors and volunteers.

In addition, observations were carried out in the preliminary stageto identify the research subject and obtain data on the actual condition of training management or factual models that already existed before. This preliminary study also produced a design or concept of a training management model developed according to needs.

Then an analysis is carried out between the results of the relevant literature study (conceptual model) and the findings of the model in the field (factual model) regarding the implementation of training management development in managing mentoring activities to produce a training management model design that is integrated with a social responsibility approach to increase the commitment and responsibility of mentors in carrying out their duties.

Observation of volunteer activities is carried out by observing volunteer activities in carrying out the IVS program accompanied by mentors. In general, observation activities are related to volunteer activities and mentoring activities. Observation results show. Based on observations in the field, it can be concluded that mentoring activities are not optimal, judging from the factual model applied.

So it was found the obstacles faced by volunteers during the internship.

Beforeimplementing the social responsibility-based mentor training model, researchers interviewed IVS volunteers interns at several schools partnered with Dejavato. The interview was conducted to obtain data about what obstacles faced when running the program with mentors. Aspects of the attitude or impression of volunteers towards their mentors in running the program before


implementing the social responsibility-based mentor training management model. The questionnaire is divided into five alternative answers, including (very high, high, medium, and very low) on attitudes and impressions before implementing the mentor training management development model.

Based on the results of interviews regarding the level of volunteer satisfaction with mentors in running the program including 1) around 47.5% stated that volunteers were satisfied working with mentors, 2) 55% volunteers stated that some mentors could help volunteer activities during internships, 3) 52, 5% of volunteers stated that mentors actively helped volunteers, 4) volunteers stated that only 55% of mentors were open-minded and able to communicate using active English.

From the results of these interviews, it can be concluded that the level of volunteer satisfaction with mentors is only 52.5% on average and is still in the medium category, meaning that it is not maximized.

These obstacles were strengthened by interviews with several volunteers who did internships at schools that had collaborated with Dejavato for the IVS program. This was stated by one of the volunteers named Radka, who did an internship at SMPN 1 MijenDemak as follows:

''The biggest obstacle I face here is communication with my mentor. We don't coordinate well, so I have difficulty adapting; the main block is the language because many cannot speak English fluently.

(Interview, September 15, 2019)

Another obstacle was a volunteer who did an internship at SMPN 2 Semarang named Sebastian Lin, a volunteer from France who did training in Indonesia for six months to help teach English at the school. Sebastian points out that:

'' I like teaching English at this school, all the teachers here are outstanding and very friendly, but sometimes I get confused about the schedule of teaching activities that are not clear and change easily, I rarely meet my mentor because my mentor is busy, so we sometimes communicate only through social media, namely Whatsapp, the role of mentor for me is not very helpful for my activities during my internship, if I have difficulties I coordinate directly with my organization, Dejavato in Semarang''. (Interview, September 20, 2019).

Another obstacle was also stated by a volunteer who was an apprentice at the Medan Aviation Polytechnic named Elliot Potter who said that:

'' I have a problem with my mentor, my mentor here is less open-minded and doesn't understand the western culture and is too protective, I travel always accompanied and overprotected, I think this is so excessive that it makes me feel uncomfortable and lack of space motion to do activities, I'm from France where my culture is very different from that in Indonesia, my mentor should understand that.'' (Interview October 19, 2019).

The results of an interview with a volunteer named Hannah Lesch, one of the volunteers from Germany, stated that:

''When I first came to my internship, my mentor only gave me my schedule during the internship, after that, we didn't communicate further, it seems my mentor didn't understand his duties as a mentor, so if I encountered problems or obstacles during In Indonesia, I coordinate directly with the Dejavato organization, and if I have difficulties while at the internship, I immediately ask for advice from the host family where I live while running the volunteer program.'' (Interview, October 22, 2019).

The results of observations and interviews with researchers related to mentoring activities were found in novice mentors when mentoring Dejavato volunteers while running the IVS program at the internship site. These problems occur due to several things, including 1) lack of understanding of


cultural differences (Cross Culture Understanding), 2) limited communication skills (mastery of English), which is minimal, 2) lack of confidence in interacting with volunteers, 3) and worries about not being able to commit to carrying out their duties as a mentor.

Based on the results of the analysis in the field, on the implementation side, most of the mentors do not have the competence as mentors. Mentoring activities are still seen as volunteer assistance only and are limited to providing information globally about programs in internships. Meanwhile, the implementation of mentoring activities should include the role of mentors as advisors to volunteers when facing obstacles, the role of mentors as motivators, the role of mentors as program coordinators, and the role of mentors as listeners for volunteers. Mentoring activities that mentors have carried out are still conventional and formal, meaning that they are only limited to providing direction upon the arrival of volunteers. This has resulted in neglected process quality the implementation of the communicative approach has not been carried out effectively.

We can find many theories about the ideal mentor. Still, it turns out that to fully apply it is a challenge because everyone has a different personal capacity and the condition of each group member is also different. So tricks in the field will be more beneficial than just understanding the material.

Empirical findings and the phenomenon of gaps that occur in the field can be concluded that during the implementation of mentoring activities in the area, it was found that mentoring activities were not optimally implemented by mentors so that both mentors and volunteers often experienced obstacles, namely lack of active communication and lack of intensity in coordinating with each other. In this case, researchers feel the need to develop a mentor training management model to improve mentors' ability in volunteer mentoring.

Based on the phenomena and empirical findings that have been described, it can be analyzed and identified the causes of the lack of optimal volunteer mentoring activities, especially in the field of expertise as a mentor. Some of the reasons are in terms of the management of the training that has been implemented that has not been optimal, which includes three management components, namely in terms of planning, implementation, and evaluation activities which are still not able to improve the competence of mentors in volunteer mentoring.

The training strategies and methods are not appropriate, causing the understanding and achievement of the mentor's competence is still not optimal. Empirical findings and the phenomenon of gaps that occur in the field can be concluded that in the factual model, it was found that mentor training management activities have not been integrated with a social responsibility approach so that mentors lack competence in volunteer mentoring and mentors do not understand their role as volunteer mentors, this will have an impact on low levels of volunteer satisfaction with mentors. In this case, researchers need to develop a mentor training management model to improve mentors' interpersonal skills and intercultural skills in volunteer mentoring.

The factual conditions mentioned above are natural aspects of the volunteer's assessment of mentors before the social responsibility-based mentor training model was implemented. It still reflects that the previous training model was not yet optimal and had not been able to improve mentors' ability in mentoring volunteers who did internships at Dejavato. It is seen in the field that it was found that some volunteers and mentors lacked coordination with each other in running the program so that this became an obstacle for volunteers when carrying out activities at the project site.

The training management model used so far has not been effective. Judging from the training model used so far, it has not been adapted to the analysis of volunteer needs, which results in mentors not


being able to mentor volunteers optimally. In addition, the previous training model that has been applied is only limited to program introduction orientation between volunteers and mentors. The findings related to the factual model of mentor training management used previously can be identified from the stages of planning, organizing, implementing, and evaluating.

Based on the preliminary study results, the previously implemented training management model is not optimal and has not increasedmentors' competence. The results of volunteer mentoring are not running optimally. Only 52.5% of mentors are categorized as a medium, which means it is not following the expected results. This can be seen clearly in planning that is not mature enough and has not been adjusted to the needs analysis of mentors and volunteers. When this management is applied continuously without any development, what happens is that the output is not as expected and cannot improve the competence of mentors in volunteer mentoring. Therefore, the training management function implemented in Dejavato needs to be developed to strengthen mentors' ability in mentoring IVS program volunteers.

Development of a training management model tailored to the needs of mentors. The need for mentors is the ability gap between the abilities already possessed and the required abilities in mentoring IVS program volunteers. In this study, the need for mentors is closely related to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that apply during the mentoring of IVS program volunteers.

A training management model is considered adequate if it is based on a curriculum, approach, and strategy that follows the mentor's needs and the problems that occur in the field.

In this development stage, the researcher realizes what was made in the design stage to become a product. The final result of this stage is a social responsibility-based training model guide. The results of the comparative analysis between the effects of preliminary studies relevant to the field's design findings (factual model) are obtained by hypothetical models. The problems faced, which became obstacles and weaknesses of the previous management model that already existed, became the basis for developing a model to improve mentors' competence in conducting volunteer mentoring activities.

Based on the three aspects of management developed above, the researcher developed a model design for mentor training activities based on social responsibility. The training activities aim to build mentor competencies. SlametSyaiful (2011:13) suggests that learning or training is a business process carried out by a person to obtain a new change in behaviour due to his own experience interacting with his environment. Mentors will gain new skills and changes after participating in training activities with these changes.

Based on the mentor training activities that were held, it was following the objectives of the IVS program, namely to produce mentors who were competent, professional, reliable, and able to carry out their commitments as mentors in mentoring IVS volunteers.

Mentor training management planning is determined in advance by integrating a social responsibility approach and designing core competencies, essential competencies as outputs or achievements after participating in training activities. The core competencies developed in mentor training include 1) leadership skills, 2) interpersonal skills, and 3) intercultural skills.

Determining the qualifications of a mentor at the time of recruitment is crucial in determining a mentor's academic competence. The success of volunteer mentoring lies in the competence and experience of the mentor in volunteer mentoring. Therefore it is necessary to determine the qualifications to become a mentor. The following are the qualifications or criteria for becoming a mentor: 1) a sense of social responsibility, 2) a desire to help, 3) have a positive experience, 4) a


good reputation for developing others, 5) have the time and energy to be a good listener if volunteers, six experience obstacles) the solution, which means having a solution or recommendation to a problem, 7) having up-to-date knowledge, and 8) being open-minded.

Essential competencies are mandatory competencies that mentors must master. Basic competencies consist of attitudes, knowledge, and skills sourced from core competencies that mentors must master.

These competencies are developed according to the needs analysis of the mentor. The fundamental competencies that must be mastered in mentoring activities include leadership, interpersonal, and intercultural skills.


1. Mentor Training Management Model Development Study Results

The development of a mentor training management model in volunteer mentoring includes three aspects of the management function, including the following:

1. Planning

In the planning aspect, several things need to be prepared, including 1) by setting mentor standards, 2) designing a social responsibility-based mentor training model, 3) designing mentor training activities as an effort to improve mentor competencies, 4) setting competency standards and indicators of mentor training tailored to mentor needs analysis, 5) designing syllabus.

The syllabus reference in the implementation of mentor training adapted to the needs analysis of the mentor refers to the social responsibility approach. The following is a reference to the social responsibility-based mentor training syllabus that refers to 3 leadership competencies, interpersonal skills, and intercultural skills.

Organizing mentors in the planning aspect is crucial because the success of mentoring activities lies in the academic ability and competence of the mentor. The mentoring element is a determinant of the success of mentoring activities.

2. Implementation

The implementation of the development of the mentor training model can be seen from the process of training activities. The social responsibility-based training can be seen from the competency formulations, the learning strategies or methods used, the media and means of training activities, and learning evaluation activities used to measure the success of mentor training activities.

The previous training activities in Dejavato were still formal and contextual. This is as stated by the IVS coordinator, Rudi, who said that:

'' Mentor training activities so far are still contextual and only limited to formalities, the actions that have been carried out so far are only limited to introducing IVS activities to mentors when volunteers arrive, we invite mentors to socialize about internships for our volunteers, such actions are like pre- apprentice orientation so that the abilities obtained by the mentor at that time were more of an informative domain, namely the delivery of information about the introduction of IVS and pre- apprentice projects. We use conventional lectures, so communicative abilities are still not maximized, and the training activities seem dull. (Interview October 10, 2019)

The above was also reinforced when the results of an interview with one of the mentors involved in IVS activities, Natria Faisal, stated that:

"Mentor training activities organized by Dejavato so far have only been limited to pre-apprentice orientation, we presented the conditions in the internship place to volunteers, and the IVS coordinator introduced the IVS project and volunteer duties, it was only informative, there was no


communication or interaction. depth to volunteers and there are no pieces of training aimed at improving our competence as mentors''. (Interview October 12, 2019)

Judging from the implementation of mentoring activities that have been implemented in Dejavato, it is still not adequate and optimal, where the performance of learning activities is still the domain of the informative aspect, so it can be concluded that the management of mentor training is still not adequate and optimal. So it needs to be developed in practice by using a social responsibility approach.

The implementation of mentor training activities developed refers to a social responsibility approach which includes: 1) introduction to the IVS program, 2) introduction to the role of mentors and mentor duties, 3) introduction to volunteer tasks, 4) team building and ice breaker activities, 5) leadership, 6) cross-cultural understanding.

The implementation of mentor training activities aims to improve mentors' abilityto mentor volunteers by referring to 3 competency indicators: leadership skills, interpersonal skills, and intercultural skills.

3. Evaluation

Evaluation activities to measure the success of mentor training activities are carried out through a questionnaire at the end of the training activity. Evaluation activities refer to leadership skills, interpersonal skills, and intercultural skills. In addition, monitoring of quality assurance is also carried out in the form of questionnaires to volunteers to determine the level of satisfaction of volunteers carrying out activities with mentors and determine the optimality of mentors in mentoring volunteers during internships.

The solution to the problem of volunteer mentoring activities by mentors is the need to develop a social responsibility-based mentor training model to overcome issues or inequalities that occur in IVS volunteer mentoring activities by mentors. The development of the training model includes the development of a mentoring training syllabus, the design of setting standards for mentors, the creation of training activities, learning methods that are tailored to the needs analysis of the needs of volunteers. The role of education management in managing training activities includes three aspects of management components: planning, implementation, and evaluation activities that have a significant role in the success of mentor training activities.

With the development of a social responsibility-based mentor training management model, it is hoped that it will help mentors improve leadership competencies, interpersonal skills, and intercultural skills. So by getting these skills, they can help mentors mentor volunteers correctly and under the expected goals.

A social responsibility approach was developed in the training activities to increase the mentor's commitment and sense of responsibility during volunteer mentoring. The following is the design of the conceptual model of mentor training management that was developed:

The factual conditions of pre-existing training management show that the previously implemented training model is still not optimal. The results of volunteer mentoring are not running optimally. It is categorized as a medium, which means it is not following the expected results. This can be seen clearly in planning that is not mature enough and has not been adjusted to the needs analysis of mentors and volunteers. When this management is applied continuously without any development, what happens is that the output is not as expected and cannot improve the competence of mentors in volunteer mentoring. Therefore, the training management function implemented in Dejavato needs to be developed to enhance mentors' ability in volunteer mentoring.



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