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Design and Fabrication of Electricscooter

VeeramanikandanK1,HariHaraSudhanS2, HritikB3, KarthickP4,Kishore SM5

1Assistant Professor, Department of Automobile Engineering, Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore-641032, Tamilnadu,India

2,3,4,5

UG scholars,DepartmentofAutomobileEngineering,KarpagamCollegeofEngineering,Coimbatore- 641032, Tamil nadu,India

Abstract-

Withthemassivehobbyinelectricautomobiletechnology,allextraordinarykindsofMOTORSareshiftingto wards green focus, such as the bike. As time progresses, theinvestigations on the motorbike evolved to an even extra complexmodel as the model want for you to consist of the dynamics of themotorbikeatexcessivepace.Relatively,fewworksoftheliteraturediscovered on an electric scooter

modelling. Therefore, this

paperambitionstodevelopanelectricscooterthatrepresentsamodelofscooterwitheachkinematicsanddyna micsofthescooterincorporated in the model. The advanced model is then tested forthevelocitytrackingandtherangetravelledtoevaluatetheperformance.

Keywords- Electricscooter,kinematicsand dynamicsofthescooter,motorbike I. INTRODUCTION

An electrically driven scooter is a battery-powered vehiclethat is mostly intended for people with limited mobility. It iscommonly used for those who have trouble walking or standingfor extended periods

of time. Scooters come in three

basicdesigns:thosedesignedforindooruse,thoseintendedforoutdooruse,andthosethatcan beusedboth indoorsandoutdoors.Anelectricscooterdiffersfromamotorisedwheelchair in where the wheelchair is usually built for indoorsuse and costs significantly more. An electric scooter can alsohave two, three, or four wheels. It does not emit toxins since itrelies on rechargeable batteries. A traditional electric scooterwillrequireapairofbatteries,whicharerenewable.Theamount of time an electric scooter will operate on a singlecharge is highly dependent on the type and capacity of itsbattery. The most commonplace batteries are advertised to lastfor around 8 hours and 20-30 miles before needing charging.Somepeoplearehesitanttopurchaseanelectricscooterbecausetheybelieveitwouldbedifficulttous e.Inreality,onceyou get the hang of it, the manipulate console makes it prettyeasy.Electricscootersnowhavemorepowerfulbrakemechanisms,makingstoppingeasyandcomforta ble.Thebrakecontinued to develop so that the rider could connect with thethrottleaseasilyaspossible.

A. ElectricVehicle

An electric vehicle (EV) is one which uses an electric motor togenerate power instead of an internal- combustion engine thatconsumes a combination of gas and fuels. As a result, alongwithcarpromisestobeaviablereplacementfortoday'stechnology vehicle, as well as a feasible solution to the issuesofrisingpollution,globalwarming,depletionofnaturalresources, and so on. Despite the fact that the concept of electriccarshasbeenhereforalongtime,ithassparkedagreatdealofinterest in the last decade as a result of the growing carbonemissions and other effects on the environment of gasoline-based automobiles.

B. VehicleTypes

Anytypeofvehiclemaytypicallybeequippedwithanelectric powertrain.

1) Plug-InElectricVehicle:Aplug-inelectricallypowered car (PEV) is a vehicle that can be

recharged from

anyexternalsourceofelectricity,suchaselectricaloutlets,andthatusestheenergycontainedinrechargeableba tterypackstodriveorassistinspinningthewheels.

2) Hybrid Evs: A hybrid electric vehicle incorporatesa traditional (often fossil-fuel-powered)

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Battery Controller Electric Motor

powertrain with sometype of electrical propulsion. Since their launch in 1997, overeleven million hybrid electric vehicles have been deliveredworldwide as of April 2016. Japan has the highest number ofhybridmarketplacesintheworld.By2013,theelectricindustryaccountedformorethan30%ofallnewluxury vehicledeliveriesandabout20%ofallnewpassengercarsales,includingkeicars.Norwaycameinsecondwith ahybridmarket shareof6.9%ofnewvehiclepurchasesin2014,ledbytheNetherlandswith3.7percent.

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II. METHODOLOGY

Fig.1Methodology

A motor is amechanicalsystem that converts electricenergy intomechanical force. "Every time a contemporarycarrying conductor is put in a magnetic field, it practises amechanicalforce" saystheDC motor'soperatingprinciple.

Ouroperationsofthebusinessaregenerallydefinedbyusingtheblocksasfollows:

i) Battery ii) Controller iii) ElectricMotor

A. Battery

Four sealed lead acid rechargeable batteries with a capacityof 12 volts and 7 ah are used, which can then be linked inparallel. It generally stores the produced electrical power andusesittopowerthemotor.Abatteryhasagoodterminalcalledcathode and a weak terminal called anode.

When connected toanoutsidecircuit,theterminalmarkedhighqualityhasahigherelectric ability capacity, while the terminal marked poor has alowerelectricabilitypower.

Electronscanmigrateandprovideenergytoanoutsideunit.Batteriesthatarerechargeablecanberecharged several times.

B. Controller

To perform its responsive, comparative, and

correctionfunctions,anElectronicControlleremployselectricalwarningsandautomatedalgorithms.Operat ionalPrinciplesAnelectronicsensor(thermocouple,RTD,ortransmitter)mountedonthesizepositionsendsa signaltothecontrolleronacontinuous basis. The electric motor's velocity can be variedusingthiscontroller.

C. ElectricMotor

The strength of an electric motor in a vehicle, like that ofmostvehicles,isestimatedinkilowatts(kW).AhundredkWisapproximately equal to 134 horsepower,

but electric

vehiclescanproducefulltorqueoveralargerangeofRPMs.Asaresult,theoutputofavehiclewitha100kWelect ricmotoroutperformsthatofavehiclewitha100kWinternalcombustionengine,whichcanonlyprovideitsma ximumtorque within a narrow range of engine speeds. During theprocess of converting electric energy to mechanical energy,energy is lost. Approximately 90% of the battery's capacity isconvertedtomechanicalstrength,withthepotential lossesinside the motor and drivetrain. Direct current (DC) power isusuallyfedintoaDC/ACinverter,whichconvertsittoalternating current (AC) energy, which is then connected to athree-phaseACmotor.DCvehiclesarewidelyfoundinelectrictrains, forklift trucks, and a few electric cars. In a few cases,conventional motors are used first, followed by AC or

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DC.Variousmotormodelshavebeenintroducedinrecentproduction vehicles, such as induction automobiles in TeslaMotors and eternal magnet devices in the Nissan Leaf andChevroletBolt.

III. EXPERIMENTALSETUP

A. BLDCElectricHubMotor

The wheel hub motor (also known as a in-wheel motor, hubmotor,wheel hub force, or wheel motor) is an electric motorthatisintegratedintothehubofawheelandconcurrentlydrivesit.

An additionally known as a brushless DC electric motor(BLDC motor or a BL motor) and a synchronous DC motor,symphonycarspoweredbymoderndirect(DC)powerfromaninverter or switching power supply that produces power in theform of a modern alternation motor (AC). The synchronouscars supply electricity in the form of a section of each enginethrough an electric closed motor. The controller supplies theenginewindingpulsesofthedaythatregulatetheenginespeedand torque.

Brushless motors are made in the same way as

permanentmagnetsynchronousmotors(PMSMs),andthey'reoftenswitchedreluctancemotorsorinduction(

asynchronous)motors.

Excessiveenergy-to-weightratio,excessiverpm,electronic power, and low preservation are all advantages ofbrushless motors over brushed motors. Brushless cars can beused in a variety of areas, from computing peripherals (discdrives, printers), hand-held control devices, and automobilesrangingfrommodelplanestoautomobiles.

Fig.2BLDCHubMotor

B. ElectronicThrottleController

Anelectricbike'svelocitycontrollerisanelectricalcircuitthat not only regulates the speed of an electric motorbus butalso acts as a dynamic brake. The power from the battery boxisusedbythiscontrollerunittooperatethe motor.

Electronic throttle control (ETC) is a vehicle

generationthatreplacesamechanicallinkagebyelectronicallylinkingtheacceleratorpedal tothe throttle.

AtypicalETCsystemconsistsofthreemaincomponents:

i) an acceleration pedal module (preferably with two ormoreindependentsensors),

ii) A throttle valve that can be opened and closed usingan electric motor (also known as an electric driven orvirtualthrottlebody(ETB))

iii) Apowertrainorenginecontrolmodule(PCMorECM).

Thebenefitsofautomatedthrottlecontrolarewidelyoverlookedbymostdriversbecausetheaimistokeept hecar'selectricteachtraitssmoothlyconsistentregardlessoftriumphingcircumstances,suchasaltitude,engin etemperature,and accent loads. Electronic throttle control is now operatingbehindthescenestoincreasetheadvantageatwhichtheridingpressure will perform equipment adjustments and resolve thedrastic torque changes involved with rapid accelerations anddecelerations.

1)Plug:

1. Red,BlackBlue:SpeedRegulator1-4VThrottle(Red:+5v,Black:-, Blue:Signal Wire) 2. Yellowblack:brake

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Fig.3ElectronicThrottleController 3. RedBlue:KeySwitch

4. YellowBlue:Motorconnections.

5. Red&Yellow:Brakelight

6. Red&Black(smallcable):Charger

7. Red&Black(bigcable):Batteryconnections.

8. RedBlack(smallcable):indicatorlight

C. SealedLeadAcid Battery

Researchersproducedamaintenance-freelead-acidbatterythatcanworkinanyplaceinthemid-

1970s.Theliquidelectrolyteisgelledandsealedintomoistenedseparators.During free discharge and changes in ambient pressure, safetyvalvesallowfor venting.

Twolead-acidsystemsoriginatedasaresultofextraordinaryindustrydemands:thesmallsealedlead- acid(SLA),alsoknownastheGelcell,andthelargervalve-regulated-lead-acid (VRLA). The two batteries are quite close.Engineerswouldarguethattheterm"sealedlead-acid"ismisleadingsinceno rechargeablebatterycanbefullysealed.

With the exception of flooded lead-acid batteries, bothSLA and VRLA batteries have a low over- voltage ability toprevent the battery from exceeding its energy capacity at anypoint in the charging cycle, as excessive charging could causegassing and water depletion. As a result, these batteries areunable to be charged to their maximum potential. Sealed lead-acid batteries use lead-calcium rather than lead-antimony toreducedry-out.

Fig.4SealedLeadAcidBattery

D. DrumBrake

A drum brake is a form of brake that uses friction to stopvehiclesby pressingoutwardagainstarevolvingcylinder-shaped elementknown asthedrumbrake.Because of its lightweight construction, consistent overallefficiency, high braking electricity, and clean set up of parkinggadgets, drum brakes are commonly used in medium and largepassenger cars. As the car is driving for miles, the pneumaticsystem applies torque to the cam, which drives the brake shoescloser to the brake drum, and the braking torque producedbetween the brake drum and the shoes stops the engine. Thestandard drum brake shape, on the other hand, has some flaws.For starters, the friction

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pressure in the friction plate is notdistributedevenly.Furthermore,sincebrakeclearanceprohibits the

friction plate from perfectly aligning with

thebrakedruminthebrakingsystem,onlypartialcontacthappensinsidethefrictionplate.Asaresult,itdeteriora testheinteractioncircumstancesbetweenboththedrumandthefriction plate, intensifies neighbourhood wear, and decreasesthefrictionplate'scarrierlife.

IV. ResultANDDISCUSSION Step(3)

Tofind maximumtorqueoneachwheel

T1 =Rfw*(DĂ·2)

=104.467*[(25.4*10-2)/2]

T1=T2

=13.26Nm Totaltorqueonbothwheel =26.5Nm

Step(4)

To find minimum Speed of wheel to move the

vehicleSpeedofWheel=vehiclespeedCircumferenceofWheel

=10 Km/hr*(3.14 *254mm)

A. REQUIREDPOWERTODRIVEELECTRICMOTOR Step(1)

Averageloadactingonthevehicleisasfollows

Averageweightofperson(FromBMCPublicHealthResearch2005) = 60kg 166667mm/min*797.56mmrpm

Step(5)

Tofindminimumpower ofthemotor

= Trw*rpm*((2đťś‹)/60)

=

= 208

Weightofbicycle

=40kg

=60*9.81

=608.22N

=40*9.81

=392.4 N

=13.26*208*((2*3.14)/60)

=286.84 Watts=287Watts OtherMiscellaneousload = 5Kg

=5*9.81

=49.05 N

Totalload =(608.22+392.4+49.05)

=1044.67N Step(2)

To findmaximumreaction oneachwheelForce(Ffw)=Force(Frw) =1044.67/2

=522.335N

Tofind thereactiononeach wheel

Rfw=Rrw =0.2*522.335

=104.467 N Design

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Fig.5E-ScooterFrame

emergencyorinagloomyenvironment.Batteriesareself-chargedwhile solar panelsareused.

Since the electrical motor and ICE propulsions will becoordinated, there may be less fuel consumption and a shorterbattery charging time (long existence consistent with price). Ifa single car can save on average 30% of fuel, so using thismodelofvehiclecansaveonaverage40%- 60%ofcountrywide diesel. And, since the batteries last a long time inaccordancewiththecharge,theenergybillwillbesaved.UsingICE to charge the batteries is also a viable option. Through theuse of this kind of car, the durability and convenience of thepurchasercanbeimproved.Lithium-

ionbatteriescanbechargedbyidlingorrunninganICEduringvehiclepropulsion,orbyusingthesolarcharging devicementioned.

Fig.6E-ScooterFrame

Fig.7Attachment

V. CONCLUSION

Self-contained charging The current hybrid scooter hasbeen modified into an electric scooter. It is fitting for all citiesand roads in the United States of America, whether they bemadeofcement,gravel,orashes.Thisscooterislessexpensive,easier to manufacture, and can be commonly used for short-distance travel, especially by schoolchildren, college students,office workers, farmers, and postmen. It could be very lotsappropriate for smaller, aged populations. It is

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possible to runitforfree.Thisscooterisuniqueinthatitdoesnotusevaluablefossiloil,thussavingforeigncurrencycores.Iti senvironmentally sustainable,low-cost,andpollutant-free,sinceit emits no pollution. Furthermore, it is practically noiseless andcanberechargedusinganACconverterintheeventofan

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