Specifics of Communicative Competence of a Primary School Teacher
Gulistan State University Republic of Uzbekistan TashmatovaMukarram,
Abstract. The article describes the need for competent primary school teachers in the light of new developments in the education system. The authors disclosed the concept of “competence”,
“competence”, “communicative competence” and “professional competence”. They identify the problems of development communicative competence as the professional values of modern primary school teachers.
The authors determined the sources of formation communicative competence and criteria for the development of communicative competence.
Key words: primary school teacher, competence, communicative and professional competence, ability, possession, capacity, educational activities
At the present stage of the formation of the school system, the main task is the development of the child’s personality. Recognition of the active role of the pupil in educational activities leads to a change in the perception of the content of the interaction between the pupil and the teacher.
Teaching is no longer considered as a simple transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the pupils, but rather as a collaboration - a joint work of the teacher and pupils in the course of mastering knowledge and solving communicative universal educational actions [1, 2012, p. 58-64].
At the same time, the process of becoming an individual, as a person, occurs gradually and under the influence of many factors. In this regard, there are increased requirements for the professional level of development of the future teacher, his pedagogical skills, competence, erudition, intelligence and general culture. This is especially important for primary school teachers who prepare pupils for social adaptation in society [2, 2002, p. 24].
Dictated by the needs of today, the high level of requirements for the education of primary school pupils can be realized only when the primary school teacher is a highly professional, competent specialist in his field. Such a specialist should not only have a fundamental educational training and possess professional knowledge and skills that correspond to the level of modern
psychological and pedagogical science. They should be aware of the goals and significance of their professional work in the integral system of continuing education, be professionally mobile, that is, flexibly respond to changes in the social situation of the development of schoolchildren, know new psychological and pedagogical requirements for the pedagogical process, and possess new pedagogical technologies. This means that a modern primary school teacher is a creative subject of professional pedagogical activity [3, 2002, p. 32].
The effectiveness of any activity organized by the teacher in the classroom or outside of it is due not only to the high level of knowledge and skills of the teacher, a well-thought-out choice of subject technologies, a developed ability to design activities, etc., but also to his ability to manage emotional contacts with pupils, creatively build a system of pedagogically appropriate relationships, constructively resolve emerging contradictions and conflicts. The professionalism of a modern teacher is manifested in the fact that he solves communicative tasks not so much on an intuitive level, but on a conscious level, relying on the knowledge of psychological and pedagogical laws.
The dynamism of social development implies that the activity of a teacher is not predetermined for the entire period of a professional career and provides for the need for continuous education, a process of continuous improvement of professional competence [4, 2008, p. 35].
Thus, in the market of educational services, one of the main conditions for ensuring the competitiveness of an educational institution is the level of professional competence of the teacher, which determines the quality of training of future specialists. In the conditions of tough competition, the school is implementing innovative educational technologies designed for competent teachers, the formation of which is hindered by the presence of certain problems. These include the rigidity of the teacher's thinking (predilection for “old”, traditional methods and forms of professional and pedagogical activity), the uncertainty of the categories “competence”, “competence”, “professional competence”, as well as fatigue from the need to be in the process of constant reworking of something, which together are factors of hidden resistance to innovative changes [5, 2006, p. 52].
Competence - the acquisition, possession by the teacher of the relevant competence, including his professional attitude to it and the subject of activity. “Competence” and “competence” are very often used as concepts that are closely related to each other. E. F. Zeer believes that the concept of competence is broader than the concept of knowledge, or skill, or skill, it includes them. Competence is understood as “the general ability of a specialist to mobilize their knowledge and skills in professional activities, as well as generalized ways of performing actions” [6, 2005, p.61-68].
Another approach is presented in the work of V. A. Slastenin, I. F. Isaev, and E. N. Shiyanov.
According to this approach, we are talking about competencies as skills, and competence is interpreted as the degree, the level of their development (pedagogical skills - the highest level) [7,
1999, p. 44].
A.V. Khutorskoy speaks of the concepts of “competence” as general and individual.
Competence includes a set of interrelated personal qualities (knowledge, skills, skills, methods of activity), set in relation to a certain range of subjectsand processes, and necessary for high-quality productive activities in relation to them. Competence - the possessionof a person of the relevant competence, including his personal attitude to it and the subject of activity. He shares these concepts, meaning by competence a certain alienated, predetermined requirement for the pupil’s educational preparation, and by competence-his personal quality (characteristic) that has already taken place [8, 2014, p. 44-47].
In the future, under competence, we will consider the integrative quality of the individual, which is manifested in the general ability and readiness for activities based on the knowledge and experience acquired in the process of training and socialization, and focused on independent and successful participation in activities. And under competence - a set of interrelated qualities of the teacher's personality, set in relation to a certain range of subjects and processes and necessary to act efficiently and productively in relation to them [7, 1999, p.70].
Studying the concepts of competence and competence, E. F. Nasyrova found that regardless of the interpretation, the concept of competence is inseparable from professional activity. In her research, she speaks about the importance in the process of forming professional competence not only of integrating theoretical and practical training, but also of the need to master the experience, the formation of the functional and personal readiness of the teacher [6, 2005, p. 69].
What does the concept of “professional competence” include? According to L.Y. Shames, the professional competence of a teacher is understood as an integral characteristic that determines the ability to solve professional problems and typical professional tasks that arise in real situations of professional pedagogical activity, using knowledge, professional and life experience, values and inclinations [5, 2006, p. 53].
Professional competence, according to L.I. Lutsenko, is a systemic, integrative unity. This is a synthesis of intellectual and skill components (cognitive and activity, including generalized knowledge, skills, and abilities), personal characteristics (value orientations, abilities, character traits, readiness to carry out activities, etc. and experience that allows a person to use their potential, carry out complex cultural activities, quickly and successfully adapt to a constantly changing society and professional activity. Professional competence is not limited to individual qualities of a person, their sum, or to certain knowledge, skills, and abilities. It reflects not only the potential available to a person and the ability to use it, but also generates new phenomena, qualities of life and activity that allow a person to be successful [6, 2005, p. 68].
In modern practice, in a general sense, professional competence is understood as the ability of a
specialist to successfully solve the tasks of professional activity according to specified standards. In our opinion, this definition quite succinctly characterizes the essence of the concept of “professional competence” and in the future we will operate with it [5, 2006, p. 54].
The study of pedagogical and psychological literature revealed that most of the teacher’s working day takes place in a tense environment, and the most tense situations are the teacher’s communication with pupils (the position of R.A. Makarevich), so the most significant problem is the development of communicative competence as a professional value of a modern primary school teacher [4, 2008, p. 45].
Communicative competence refers to the key competencies necessary for professional pedagogical activity, and is defined by many psychologists (A.A. Krylov, E.V. Prozorova, etc.) as the ability to establish and maintain the necessary contacts with other people. Among the important communicative qualities of a teacher are the following: a tendency to communicate with people, sociability, the ability to effectively resolve a conflict, fluency in verbal and nonverbal means of communication, ease, logical and clear speech, politeness, tact, a sense of humor, etc. [7, 1999, p.75].
Let's consider the structure of communication abilities, skills and abilities used by the teacher in communicating with pupils. There are a number of special communication skills and skills that a primary school teacher should possess:
- a person’s knowledge of other people, correct perception and assessment of the communication situation, the ability to behave with people;
- General assessment of personality, which usually develops on the basis of first impressions;
evaluation of certain traits of his personality, motives, and intentions, to evaluate the relationship between externally observable behavior with the internal world of man; the ability to understand the meaning of gestures, facial expressions and pantomimic;
- a person’s knowledge of himself; involves an assessment of his knowledge, abilities, character and other personality traits; an assessment of how he is perceived from the outside and looks in the eyes of people around him;
- the ability to correctly assess communication situations: observe the situation, choose the most informative signs of it and pay attention to them; correctly perceive and evaluate the socio- psychological meaning of the situation [3, 2002, p. 35].
The criteria for the development of communicative competence should correspond to the main functions of the teacher's professional activity and reflect the following skills:
- the ability to conduct verbal and non-verbal exchange of information, as well as to diagnose the personal characteristics and qualities of the interlocutor;
- the ability to develop a strategy, tactics and techniques, to interact with people, to organize
their joint activities to achieve certain socially significant goals;
- the ability to identify with the interlocutor, understand how he is perceived by the communication partner and empathize with him [8, 2014, p. 81].
The main sources of acquiring communicative competence are: socio-normative experience of folk culture; knowledge of communication languages, experience of interpersonal communication in business, everyday and festive settings; experience of perception of art; knowledge, general erudition and scientific methods of teaching communication. From these sources, a complex set of communicative knowledge and skills that make up the communicative competence of the individual is formed [8, 2014, p. 82].
In general, the communicative competence of a teacher can be characterized as a certain level of formation of personal and professional experience of interaction with others, which is required for an individual to successfully function in the professional environment and society within the framework of their abilities and social status [7, 1999, p.76].
Thus, communicative competence is the main component of the professional competence of a primary school teacher. It includes: a high level of speech development, allowing a person in the process of communicating freely receive and transfer information; ability to engage with people based on their age, socio-cultural status; the ability of active listening, building feedback; possession of a situation and flexibility, the willingness to take the initiative in communicating or transmitting it to the interlocutor; understanding non-verbal language; the ability to correctly assess the interlocutor as a person and choose their own communication strategy depending on this assessment; the ability to behave adequately to the situation and use its specifics to achieve their own communication goals, to cause the interlocutor to have a positive perception of their personality [7, 1999, p.77].
We believe that improving the level of communicative competence of a primary school teacher is one of the most important tasks of a modern school, since it is the teacher who is the figure that not only contributes to the translation of knowledge and the formation of general cultural and professional competencies of pupils-future primary level specialists, but also inspires them by personal example [7, 1999, p. 78].
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